Some notes and speculations about various topics. ||| Gegenwärtig - vorübergehend -
wohl eher eine Gedankensammlung als ein Naturwissenschaftsblog. Das Konzept eines "Naturwissenschaftsblogs" wird erst im kommenden Jahr (2018/2019) Umsetzung finden.
Dienstag, 17. April 2018
"Positive emotions, such as love and joy, seem useful while negative
emotions, such as anger and anxiety, seem maladaptive. This is an illusion,
the same "clinician's illusion" that makes it hard to see the utility of bodily
defensive responses such as fever and pain.The high costs of negative emotions
and body defenses demonstrate not that they are useless, but the opposite:
their high costs confirm that they offer substantial benefits in certain
situations. They will sometimes be expressed in situations where they are
maladaptive, and the systems that regulate defenses make mistakes (Nesse,
200lb; Nesse, 2005), but overall they give an advantage.
Although it is harder to see the utility of negative emotions, most people
readily recognize the utility of anxiety. In the face of a potential danger, protective responses prevent damage or loss. Sadness, however, typically
occurs after a loss. The horse is already out of the bam, as it were, so how
can any kind of response be helpful now? However, an evolutionary view
highlights different questions: Is the loss of a valuable resource an event
of adaptive significance? To put it more specifically, are there things an organism
can do after a loss that might increase its fitness? There are many,
including attempting to undo the loss, trying to prevent future losses and
"Sadness differs from low mood and depression. A discrete loss that does
not block long-term goals will arouse sadness that soon fades.If, however,
the loss makes it impossible to reach important goals, continued striving toward
an unreachable goal gives rise to low mood, that is, mild depression.
Klinger describes how low mood can be useful in disengaging effort from unachievable
goals and how persistence in pursuit of such goals could escalate
ordinary low mood into full-fledged depression (Klinger, 1975). This paradigm
has now developed so it is widely recognized that mood is influenced
by events that indicate a change in expected rate of progress towards crucial
goals (Carver&: Scheier, 1990, 1998) although recognition of the relevance
of these discoveries for psychiatry is still nascent (Nesse, 2000a)."