Samstag, 20. Oktober 2018

Die Aufmerksamkeit:

"In der Tat, nichts charakterisiert einen Menschen so gut wie das Verhalten seiner Aufmerksamkeit."

"Sage mir, was du beachtest, und ich will dir sagen, wer du bist."

Jose Ortega y Gasset

[Siehe auch: That your experience largely depends on ...]

Intelligentes Denken und Problemlösen:

Gerhard Roth - Fühlen, Denken, Handeln:

"[D]ie Aufgabe [besteht] im Wesentlichen darin, sehr schnell den Kern eines Problems zu identifizieren und dann aus verschiedenen Teilen des Gedächtnisses geeignetes Wissen bzw. geeignete Fertigkeiten aufzurufen und sie in kreativer Weise miteinander zusammenzusetzen.

Schlechte Problemlöser erkennen oft nicht, was ein Problem schwierig macht, und können ihre Strategien dem neuen Problem nicht gut anpassen. Der intelligente Mensch hingegen ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass er relativ schnell eine Lösung des ausstehenden Problems findet. Beim Problemlösen muss nicht nur relevante Information aktiviert, sondern auch irrelevante Information unterdrückt werden, und all dies meist unter Zeitdruck. Hiernach soll sich das Gehirn eines intelligenten Menschen dadurch auszeichnen, dass das Abrufen relevanter Information (vor allem von >Expertenwissen<), das Unterdrücken irrelevanter Information sowie das anschließende Zusammenfügen der relevanten Information möglichst schnell und mit möglichst geringem Aufwand geschieht."

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"Die Untersuchungen von Haier und Neubauer deuten an, dass Intelligenz in beträchtlichem Maße davon abhängt, wie schnell bestimmte Hirngebiete aktiviert und darin enthaltene Informationen ausgelesen und zusammengesetzt werden können[.]"

Mensch und Tier, Sprache und Handlungsplanung:

Gerhard Roth, Wie einzigartig ist der Mensch?:

"In zwei Bereichen sind die Unterschiede zwischen Mensch und nichtmenschlichen Tieren besonders groß, nämlich in der Fähigkeit zur mittel- und langfristigen Handlungsplanung und in der syntaktisch-grammatikalischen Sprache.

Menschenaffen, zum Beispiel Schimpansen, sind in der Lage, bestimmte Handlungen für einige Stunden (oder vielleicht etwas länger) im Voraus zu planen, die allermeisten anderen Tiere zeigen – von artspezifisch-instinktivem Verhalten abgesehen – keinerlei längerfristige Handlungsplanung. Es ist für alle Tiere äußerst schwierig, mithilfe des Arbeitsgedächtnisses Vorstellungen und Gedanken für mehr als eine Minute „im Kopf“ zu behalten – meist sind es nur wenige Sekunden. Bei uns Menschen ist es allein die „phonologische Schleife“ unseres Arbeitsgedächtnisses, mit der wir uns Dinge still aufsagen können (zum Beispiel Zahlen oder Namen), und dies hilft uns enorm bei der kurzfristigen Handlungsplanung. Eine über Tage hinausgehende Handlungsplanung ist ohne Symbole als Merkhilfen (etwa in Form eines Kalenders) nicht möglich.

Der syntaktisch-grammatikalischen Sprache scheint bei den kognitiven Leistungen des Menschen eine Schlüsselrolle zuzukommen, denn sie ermöglicht eine Art des Denkens, die allem nichtsprachlichen Denken haushoch überlegen ist. Der menschlichen Sprache liegt das Grundvermögen zur gedanklichen Bewältigung zeitlich aneinandergereihter Zeichen und Ereignisse zugrunde, und es ist gleichgültig, ob es dabei um gesprochene oder geschriebene Worte, Gebärden oder zu betätigende Tasten geht. Gehörlose verfügen in der Regel über intakte Wernicke- und Broca-Areale, und Störungen dieser Areale drücken sich bei Gehörlosen in entsprechender Weise in der Gebärdensprache aus wie bei sprechenden Personen in der Lautsprache. Menschenaffen kommen auch mithilfe der Gebärdensprache oder einer Computertastatur nicht über die Barriere einer Zwei- bis Drei-Wort-Sprache ohne deutliche Grammatik und Syntax hinaus. Es ist offenbar eine ganz generelle kognitive Fähigkeit zur zeitlichen Segmentierung, die in den Dienst der Sprache gestellt wurde."

[Siehe auch: Language as a mighty "intelligence amplifier", Sonderstellung des Menschen, The most clear-cut difference ...]

Donnerstag, 18. Oktober 2018

Kreativität:

"Kreativität ist eine Gratwanderung zwischen zu viel und zu wenig Assoziativität. Viele kreative Menschen sprudeln vor Ideen, un der Schritt zum >Spinner< ist oft klein, und häufig genug fällt es schwer, zwischen Hochkreativen und >Verrückten< zu unterscheiden."

Gerhard Roth

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"Zweifellos sind kreative Prozesse keine rein intracortikalen Vorgänge, sondern sind sehr stark von subcorticalen limbischen Vorgängen beeinflusst, und zwar mehr als bei einer reinen Intelligenzleistung. Hierfür spricht die Tatsache, dass das limbische System nicht nur die Ausschüttung von Neuromodulatoren im Cortex (und besonders im präfrontalen Cortex) kontrolliert, sondern auch die Aktivität des Nucleus reticularis thalami überwacht. Dies könnte erklären, warum Kreativität mehr als Intelligenz von Intuition lebt. D.h. viele kreative Lösungen werden ganz offenbar unbewusst vorbereitet."

Intelligenz:


Fluide Intelligenz: 

~ wie rasch eine Person auffasst bzw. Sachverhalte versteht; wie rasch und effektiv eine Person Ungewissheit darüber reduziert / beseitigt, wie sich eine Sache verhält / wie sich Sachen verhalten;


Kristalline Intelligenz:

~ die Menge an Sachverhalten, die eine Person versteht; der Abstraktheitsgrad und Komplexitätsgrad von Sachverhalten, den eine Person versteht;

Mittwoch, 17. Oktober 2018

"To do high, real good physics work you do need absolutely solid lengths of time[.] ... [I]t needs a lot of concentration - that is, solid time to think[.]"

Richard Feynman

Sonntag, 14. Oktober 2018

Kümmerer:

Wiktionairy:

"Person, die sich intensiv um bestimmte Dinge bemüht/sich für sie einsetzt."

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Unabhängig davon, ob der Begriff im Speziellen Sinn macht: Es gibt Personen, die sich um ihre Angelegenheiten, gegebenenfalls auch um überindividuelle Angelegenheiten, kümmern und entsprechend Verantwortung übernehmen, die also ihre Verantwortung wahrnehmen. Ebenso gibt es Personen, die relativ unbekümmert und gedankenlos, die eigene Verantwortung weitgehend ignorieren. In vielen Fällen führt die Unbekümmertheit allerdings zu Konsequenzen, die sich bei adäquater Wahrnehmung der eigenen Verantwortung hätten vermeiden lassen: Ein Kettenraucher, z.B., kann sich um seinen massiven Zigarettenkomsum relativ unbekümmert zeigen. "Das lässt sich so nicht vorhersagen, dass das bei mir Folgen haben wird. Es gibt da den einen Kettenraucher, der schließlich über 90 Jahre alt wurde. Und überhaupt, ich bin ja noch jung, das dauert ja noch Jahrzehnte bis sich ernste Konsequenzen zeigen. Falls sich solche zeigen. Man kann sich ja nie sicher sein." Ähnlich bei Personen, die sich Jahrzehnte hindurch sehr schlecht ernähren, und hierdurch eine ausgeprägte Fettleibigkeit herbeiführen. Hätten sie sich rechtzeitig gekümmert, vorausgeschaut, und sich darum bemüht, der Selbstschädigung vorzubeugen, hätten sich hierdurch zwar Sorgen eingestellt, doch hätten sie dann auch keine Konsequenzen der Unbekümmertheit zu tragen.

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Gemäß Linda S. Gottfredson konnte die menschliche Intelligenz insbesondere deshalb evolvieren, da sie uns ermöglicht, Gefahren zu antizipieren.

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Eine Ehe lässt sich unter anderem auch als ein gemeinsames Kümmern / als ein gemeinsames Bewältigen von Aufgaben verstehen.

Happiness:

Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research, E. Diener & W. Tov:

"Subjective well-being is known colloquially as 'happiness' and refers to the various ways in which people evaluate their lives positively. ... [S]ubjective well-being is a state in which a person feels and believes that life is going well[.]"

Donnerstag, 11. Oktober 2018

A little each day is enough ...

>If our professions do not allow us to devote more than two hours a day to a subject, do not abandon the work on the pretext that we need four or six. As Payot wisely noted, “A little each day is enough, as long as a little is produced each day.”<

Santiago Ramon y Cajal

Effizientes Arbeiten:

Solange dem Menschen "alle Zeit der Welt" zur Verfügung steht, zwingt ihn nichts, effizient zu arbeiten. Manchmal stellt sich effizientes Arbeiten erst dann ein, wenn sich die Notwendigkeit hierzu ergibt.

"The Average User Checks Email 5.6 Hours Per Weekday."

http://calnewport.com/blog/2018/10/09/the-average-user-checks-email-5-6-hours-per-weekday-this-is-not-good/

Mittwoch, 10. Oktober 2018

Schwätzen:

"Was heißt schwätzen? Schwätzen heißt mit einer unbeschreiblichen Geschäftigkeit von den gemeinsten Dingen, die entweder schon jedermann weiß oder nicht wissen will, so weitläuftig sprechen, daß darüber niemand zum Wort kommen kann, und jedermann Zeit und Weile lang wird."


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"Ob ein Mann, der schreibt, gut oder schlecht schreibt, ist gleich ausgemacht, ob aber einer, der nichts schreibt und stille sitzt, aus Vernunft oder aus Unwissenheit stille sitzt, kann kein Sterblicher ausmachen."

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"Wie werden einmal unsere Namen hinter den Erfindern des Fliegens und dergleichen vergessen werden."

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"Man kann sicher bei verschlossenen Augen in das erste beste Buch den Finger auf eine Zeile legen, und sagen, hierüber ließe sich ein Buch schreiben."

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"Manche Leute wissen alles so, wie man ein Rätsel weiß, dessen Auflösung man gelesen hat, oder einem gesagt worden ist, und das ist die schlechteste Art von Wissenschaft, die der Mensch sich am wenigsten erwerben sollte;"

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"Ich habe einen Mann von großen Talenten gekannt, dessen ganzes Meinungs-System, so wie sein Meubeln-Vorrat, sich durch eine besondere Ordnung und Brauchbarkeit unterschied, er nahm nichts in sein Haus auf, wovon er nicht den Nutzen deutlich sah, etwas anzuschaffen, bloß weil es andere Leute hatten, war ihm unmöglich."

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"Gäbe es nur lauter Rüben und Kartuffeln in der Welt, so würde einer vielleicht einmal sagen, es ist schade daß die Pflanzen verkehrt stehen."

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"Wenn jemand etwas sehr gerne tut, so hat er fast immer etwas in der Sache was die Sache nicht selbst ist."

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"Wer zwei Paar Hosen hat, mache eins zu Geld und schaffe sich dieses Buch an."

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"Es hatte die Würkung, die gemeiniglich gute Bücher haben. Es machte die Einfältigen einfältiger, die Klugen klüger und die übrigen Tausende blieben ungeändert."

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"Ich habe nichts zurückgehalten, sondern meine mit vielem Schweiß und Mühe auf fast unzähligen Hochzeiten, Kindbetten und Magisterschmäusen erworbene Menschenkenntnis, sowohl als die auf meinen die Elbe hinunter getanen Reisen und einer Tour auf dem Salzwasser, wo ich das Salz der Widerwärtigkeit nicht wenig geschmeckt habe, erlangten vielfältigen Erfahrungen gerne und willig bekannt gemacht, ohne Hoffnung des geringsten Profits."

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"Der enthusiastische Schriftsteller, der von allen Dingen spricht und alle Dinge ansieht, wie andere ehrliche Leute, wenn sie einen Hieb haben,"

Montag, 8. Oktober 2018

'We Can Read Without Learning at All'

Patrick Kurp:

>The obvious risk involved in adhering strictly to autodidacticism is waywardness. We require the friction of other minds to buff away self-generated roughness. Few of us can polish ourselves. We are likelier to grow cranky and conspiracy-minded, mistaking brainstorms for insight while rediscovering what the rest of the world already knows. Had I read only the books assigned in class, I would today be only nominally literate. Had I read only the books that confirmed the thoughts I already possessed, I would remain marginally illiterate. Osborne writes:

“For both Cobbett and myself, unscheduled reading made the child father to the man. It led to his career in journalism and to mine in academe. It was self-education rather than twelve years in a public school which allowed me to complete the college work that prepared me for graduate school. The mature Cobbett boasted that ‘books and literature have been my delight.’ His intensive personal reading helped to develop that direct, vigorous style of writing which still holds a reader’s attention. Knowledge imparted in classrooms -- what Ben Jonson called ‘schoolcraft’ -- would have smoothed our way early in life but might have cramped our individuality and led us along other paths.”

Fr. Schall reminds us of the thrills and risks of self-education: "We can read without learning at all. We can have read only one book, the Bible or Shakespeare, but read it well. We can read many things, none of which move our souls to attend to what is." <

How to keep unwanted content out of your Twitter stream:

https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2018/09/18/take-charge-of-your-twitter-stream/

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See also: https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2018/09/05/push-versus-pull/

Evaluate people at their best or their worst?

https://www.johndcook.com/blog/2009/03/03/evaluate-people-at-their-best/

Sonntag, 7. Oktober 2018

spontaneous processing & flow:

"But, I must hastily add, we shouldn’t confuse the spontaneous processing mode with the flow experience solely because both are unconscious. ... flow is a third type of creativity mode that emanates, unlike the deliberate and spontaneous modes, from the implicit system. The spontaneous creativity mode must be considered as part of the explicit system. It can draw on the omnidirectional knowledge representation of the explicit system, use a scaffold to a goal representation projected into the hypothetical future, and, most importantly, represent its final product in working memory in the form of an insight. The flow mode, which emanates from the simpler, concrete-operational implicit system can do none of that."

Arne Dietrich

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"Flow emanates from the implicit system, the deliberate and spontaneous modes emanate from the explicit system."

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"The spontaneous creativity mode and the experience of flow are similar in that they both operate in the mind’s unconscious hinterland. But this is also where the similarities end. We shouldn’t forget that neuroscientists still know little of the goings-on in there, but several considerations should give us much confidence to presuppose that the spontaneous mode stems from the explicit system. Much of the power of the deliberate mode is certainly taken out, but one thing we know for certain is that scaffolding takes place during incubation. The scaffold itself doesn’t make it to consciousness; it falls away, like a Wittgensteinian ladder, before the aha moment occurs. But the feeling of discontinuity, the fact that the solution is several steps removed from the problem constellation, leaves no doubt of a scaffolding process."

thinking modes:

"the conscious representation of an ideational combination can be achieved in at least two different thinking modes, or types of creativity if you prefer (Dietrich, 2004b). In the deliberate mode, as you would expect from the name, problem-solving is intentional and the retrieval of memory effortful. In the more celebrated spontaneous mode, on the other hand, problem-solving is not intentional and the representation of the solution in working memory is sudden and surprising. These two modes seem to map well on to experience. One involves hard thinking until you feel that steam is about to come out of your ears, while the other flows with intuitive ease and seems to require no mental exertion at all."

Arne Dietrich

Selbstberieselung:

Es macht z.B. nur wenig Sinn, in seiner Freizeit andauernd Bücher zu lesen, wenn man gar kein intensives Bedürfnis hat, sie zu lesen. Dann ist das Lesen nichts als Berieselung und man lernt nur wenig dabei.

Kreativität:

">Kreativität ist einfach das Verbinden von Dingen<, sagte der Apple-Gründer Steve Jobs 1996. >Wenn du kreative Menschen fragst, wie sie etwas getan haben, bekommen sie ein schlechtes Gewissen, weil sie nicht wirklich etwas getan, sondern vielmehr etwas gesehen haben.<"

Aus: Charles Duhigg - Smater, Schneller, Besser

Evolution of high intelligence:

"Ever more numerous and dangerous man-made hazards (weapons, poisons, vehicles) can explain humans' suddenly accelerated evolution of high intelligence. The mind's eye became ever more important to spot lurking hazards, imagine consequences, and avoid 'accidents waiting to happen.' " 

Samstag, 6. Oktober 2018

Work Complexity:

"Factor loadings on the work complexity dimension indicate which particular mental processes and structural features of work contribute to a job's overall complexity. Starting with cognitive-processing tasks, loadings on the complexity dimension (essentially, their g loading) reflect the distinction between productive and reproductive thinking: higher for the importance of compiling (0.90), combining (0.88), and analyzing (0.83) information and lower or the importance of coding (0.68), transcribing (0.51), remembering (0.40), and recognizing (0.36) it. Factor loadings of structural features reflected the importance of independent judgment and the ability to juggle more numerous and varied activities: importance of self-direction (0.88), lack of structure (0.77), lack of supervision (0.73), variety and change (0.41), and negatively with repetitive activities (-0.49; Gottfredson, 1997b)."

Linda S. Gottfredson

Ability:

"[A]bility refers to the possible variations over individuals in the ... levels of task difficulty ... at which, on any given occasion in which all conditions appear favorable, individuals perform successfully on a defined class of tasks."

 (Carroll , 1993, p. 8, emphasis added

Fully Exploiting Maximal Capacity:

"Many, perhaps most, individuals routinely function below their maximum. Thinking is hard work. If my students are any guide, many have never experienced working to their maximum (except on standardized tests) so do not even know what they are capable of until pushed. Exploiting one's intelligence more fully is a form of developing it: taking greater advantage of one's existing capacities to learn and accomplish more. Like other forms of capital, human capital is wasted if not invested."

Donnerstag, 4. Oktober 2018

Zeitinvestment:

"Life can only be understood backwards; but it must be lived forwards."
Søren Kierkegaard


Wir können aus der Vergangenheit ein Lehre ziehen. Wir können zurückschauen und prüfen, wann wir in unserem Leben Zeit effektiv investierten, und wann wir Zeit verschwendeten. Solch eine Lehre ist allerdings kein Selbstzweck. Sondern ihr kommt erst dann ein persönlicher Wert zu, wenn wir sie verwerten, um unser künftiges Zeitinvestment besser oder effektiver zu gestalten. Wenn wir eine Langzeitperspektive in den Mittelpunkt unseres Lebens stellen, dann stellt sich bei dem Blick zurück primär die Frage: "Aus welchen Tätigkeiten (oder z.B. Lernbemühungen) konnte ich mir etwas mitnehmen, aus welchen nicht?" So können wir künftig solche Tätigkeiten oder Leistungen forcieren, denen wirklich eine dauerhafte Bedeutung für unser Leben zukommt.

Overall Job Complexity:

"Gottfredson’s (1997b) large first factor, “Overall Job Complexity,” correlated most highly with occupational prestige and the need for workers to compile, combine, communicate, and analyze written, spoken, and visual information, whether verbal, quantitative, or behavioral, and to do so under conditions entailing much responsibility, little supervision, and considerable psychological stress."

Linda S. Gottfredson

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"In short, the advantages conferred by higher levels of g are successively larger in successively more complex jobs, tasks, and settings. Greater experience and other favorable personal traits can compensate to some extent for lower levels of g, but they can never negate the disadvantages of information processing that is slow or error prone."

"g affects job performance primarily indirectly, by promoting faster and more effective learning of essential job knowledge, during both training and experience on the job."

Das Investment von Zeit und Gedanken:

Kein Mensch verfügt über unbegrenzte zeitliche oder kognitive Ressourcen. Es geht darum, mit den vorhandenen Ressourcen gut zu haushalten.
Cal Newport:

"He found that managers and other skilled professionals were spending surprisingly large percentages of their time working on tasks that could be completed by comparably lower-level employees.

He identified several factors that explain this observation, but a major culprit was the rise of 'productivity-enhancing' computer systems. This new technology made it possible for managers and professionals to tackle administrative tasks that used to require dedicated support staff.

The positive impact of this change was that companies needed less support staff. The negative impact was that it reduced the ability of managers and professionals to spend concentrated time working on the things they did best."

Dienstag, 2. Oktober 2018

The WMC - long term memory relationship:



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"Pupil dilation at encoding partly explained the WMC-long term memory relationship."

"The present study used pupil dilation as an index of the intensity of attention to determine if variation in attention at encoding partially accounts for the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and long-term memory (LTM). ... Overall, results support the notion that high WMC individuals outperform low WMC individuals in delayed free recall, which is partly explained by the amount of attention devoted to items at encoding."

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"Taken altogether, it appears that WMC is related to the intensity of attention at encoding, but this relation is small. Thus, while the intensity of attention is one source of variation explaining why high WMC individuals outperform low WMC individuals in delayed free accuracy, the relation between WMC and LTM is largely driven by other factors—such as search efficiency (Miller and Unsworth, in press, Unsworth and Engle, 2007, Unsworth, 2007) and variation in monitoring abilities (Unsworth & Brewer, 2010). Nonetheless, the current study contributes to the literature by demonstrating that WMC related differences in pupillary responses at encoding appear to be driven by the amount of resources available for processing items, as well as the strategic allocation of those resources. Given their excess capacity, high WMC individuals appear to process the entire word list as a single entity. That is, high WMC individuals may incorporate each subsequent word into an ongoing strategy. On the other hand, people with low WMC seemingly compensate for a lack of available resources by selectively focusing their attention on what they deem to be the most valuable items (see also Middlebrooks, Kerr, & Castel, 2017). These results suggest that attentional processes operating at encoding must be taken into consideration when trying to better elucidate reasons for which some individuals (e.g., people with high WMC) are better able to recall items from LTM than others."

experience and g:

"Validities for experience can also sometimes rival those for g, but, once again, they fall as complexity increases (McDaniel, Schmidt, & Hunter, 1988). In addition, they fall (whereas those for g do not) as groups gain longer average job tenure (Schmidt, Hunter, Outerbridge, & Goff, 1988). The advantages of superior experience fade - but those of superior g do not - in more experienced groups of workers."

Samstag, 29. September 2018

Die Aufmerksamkeit:

>"Stellen Sie sich die Aufmerksamkeitsspanne Ihres Gehirns wie den Lichtsstrahl eines Scheinwerfers vor, der breitgestreut und unscharf oder fokussiert und hell sein kann", erläutert David Strayer, Kognitionspsychologe an der University of Utah. Unsere Aufmerksamkeitsspanne wird von unseren Absichten gesteuert. In den meisten Situationen entscheiden wir uns, ob wir den Scheinwerfer scharf stellen oder in die Breite leuchten lassen. Aber wenn wir automatisierten Systemen wie Computern und Autopiloten erlauben, an unserer Stelle aufmerksam zu sein, dimmt unser Gehirn den Scheinwerfer und lässt ihn herumfahren, wo immer er will.<

Charles Duhigg

Freitag, 28. September 2018

Active Repetition:

“A curious peculiarity of our memory is that things are impressed better by active than by passive repetition. I mean that in learning—by heart, for example—when we almost know the piece, it pays better to wait and recollect by an effort from within, than to look at the book again. If we recover the words in the former way, we shall probably know them the next time; if in the latter way, we shall very likely need the book once more.”

William James

Hast und Eile:

"Hast ist nicht Eile. Ein Wiesel, ein lebhaftes Kind, das quecksilberig beweglich keinen Augenblick still sitzt, der geschickte Fechter, der blitzgeschwind angreift und pariert - sie alle bewegen sich schnell, nicht hastig. Ihre Bewegungen sind genau dem Zweck angepasst, jede einzelne kommt, wenn sie muss, nicht früher, nicht später. Anders der Hastige."

Mittwoch, 26. September 2018

Lügen und Gerede:

"Die Lüge sagt das Gegenteil von dem, was einer weiß, was er fühlt und will, in der Lüge spricht sich der Mensch nicht aus, sondern er hüllt sich ein. Im Gerede aber hat er überhaupt nichts zu sagen, das Gerede ist unecht, es ist Vortäuschung einer Meinung, einer Stellungnahme, eines Gefühls, einer Absicht, es ist Fassade, hinter der nichts steht als innere Leere, Gedankenlosigkeit, Gefühl- und Ziellosigkeit."

Philipp Lersch

Montag, 24. September 2018

Human capital:

"Human capital is defined as everything within a person that helps to be productive in economic action. It comprises physical-bodily and psychological abilities as well as personality attributes; e.g. health and the ability to walk, see and hear; to understand and cognitively perceive and solve problems; to be diligent, reliable and motivated."

Heiner Rindermann

Samstag, 22. September 2018

"Almost anything can be interesting once. Only a few things ever become endlessly fascinating[.]"

Paul Silvia

Warum faszinieren uns manche Menschen, Dinge, Ideen und Sachverhalte so, dass wir uns wieder und wieder und wieder mit ihnen beschäftigen können? Warum geht von manchen Gegenständen ein dauerhafter, nie enden wollender Reiz aus? Was ist es genau, das dieses tiefe Interesse auslöst?

Freie Lesetätigkeit:

Auch die freie Lesetätigkeit sollte von Wert-Erwartungen gesteuert sein.
Z.B.: Von welchem Lesestoff erwarte ich mir besonders viel und besonders relevante Inhalte mitnehmen zu können?
Im Nachhinein kommt es zu einer Überprüfung der Erwartungen und zu einer Modifikation des weiteren Leseverhaltens.

Der innere Kompass:

"Menschen - so Asendorpf - suchen sich eher diejenigen Umwelten und Lebensbedingungen, die zu ihnen passen, anstatt sich der Umwelt aktiv anzupassen."

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Linda Gottfredson:

"Our inner genetic compass is the core of our individuality ... it quietly but incessantly inclines us to take some paths rather than others, be attracted to or repelled by certain activities, seize different opportunities, respond differently to the same environments, and create different social niches for ourselves when given a choice."

"Individuals are self-activating, self-directed experience instigators, selectors, and evaluators. The genetic propensities with which we are born, including temperament, are the precursors of the general personality and ability traits that will soon take form (Funder, 2001; Lykken, Bouchard, McGue, & Tellegen, 1993). These propensities act like an internal compass, inclining us toward or away from possible forms of experience that we might encounter or create (for example, risky versus safe, people-related versus things-related). We tend toward those we resonate with and away from those that discomfit us. Emitting a constant stream of mostly preconscious feedback, this compass colours our past experiences and influences our future choices. Our genotypes thus help shape both the perceived and actual environments in which we develop. In other words, nature activates and shapes nurture."

"...behavior geneticists have proposed a genes-drives-experience theory (Bouchard, Lykken, Tellegen, & McGue, 1996). As children mature they take an increasingly active and independent role in selecting, shaping, and interpreting their environments. Moreover, when given the opportunity, they select experiences more in line with their genetic proclivities. Each comes into the world with a different internal genetic compass, which causes them to be attracted to or repelled by different kinds of people, activities, and settings. The anxiety-prone will more often avoid anxiety-provoking situations; the emotionally stable will perceive the world as more benign than will the neurotic; and the musically gifted will more often seek opportunities to develop their talent (called active gene-environment correlation). People also create different environments for themselves by evoking different reactions from the people around them. The obnoxious will evoke more hostile social environments for themselves than will the amiable, and parents will appropriately provide different kinds of toys, support, and developmental opportunities to their children when they differ in needs, interests, and talents (called evocative or reactive gene-environment correlation). In addition, people differ genetically in their sensitivity to given external influences, such as particular pathogens or kinds of instruction (gene-environment interaction)."

Freitag, 21. September 2018

Learning:

"Learning is deeper and more durable when it's effortful. Learning that's easy is like writing in sand, here today and gone tomorrow."

make it stick, P. C. Brown et al.

Donnerstag, 20. September 2018

Fokussiertes Leben:

Will man fokussiert leben, kommt es darauf an, Ablenkungen zu identifizieren: Was sind die eigentlichen Quellen von wertlosem Lärm und von Hintergrundrauschen in der eigenen Innen- und Umwelt?

Suckers for Irrelevancy:

Suckers for Irrelevancy: The Surprising Hazards of Multitasking

“… the people we talk with continually said, look, when I really have to concentrate, I turn off everything and I am laser-focused. And unfortunately, they’ve developed habits of mind that make it impossible for them to be laser-focused. They’re suckers for irrelevancy. They just can’t keep on task.”

Dienstag, 18. September 2018

So zu lesen und zu studieren, dass es sich ansetzt:

"So zu lesen und zu studiren, daß es sich immer ansezt, kan ich rathen, obgleich die Welt nicht an mir den Nutzen dieses Rathes sieht, ich gebe ihn nicht weil ich ihn durch häufige Erfahrung nützlich befunden habe, sondern, weil ich jezt sehe und deutlich, daß ich ihn hätte befolgen sollen."

Georg Cristoph Lichtenberg

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Aus welchen Büchern / Artikeln nahm man sich besonders viel und besonders relevante Inhalte mit?

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Will man sich effektiv relevante Inhalte aus Lesestoff aneignen, sollte man mit folgenden zwei Voraussetzungen vertraut sein: Zum einen mit der Herangehensweise des effektiven Lesens. Diese besteht wohl darin, im Lesefortschritt des öfteren Pausen zu machen. Diese Zeitspannen werden für das Durchdenken oder Rekapitulieren relevanter Inhalte genutzt. Zum anderen kommt es darauf an, tatsächlich informativen Lesestoff zu wählen und mäßig informativen oder uninformativen Lesestoff zu meiden.

Sonntag, 16. September 2018

Fragen:

Wenn es ein Orakel gäbe in der Welt, das jedem Menschen einmal im Leben eine Frage wahrheitsgemäß beantworten würde, dann wäre es sehr spannend zu beobachten, wie unterschiedlich motiviert die Fragen wären, die gestellt werden würden.

Samstag, 15. September 2018

"[A]s many studies have shown, creativity (as achievement) must be based on a vast amount of knowledge and practice in order to produce original works of art and science; failing to give children the chance to acquire this basic knowledge condemns them to a life of complete failure as far as genuine, socially valued and creative activity is concerned."

"Those who advocate allowing children to 'express themselves' ... and failing to teach them the basic skills required for such expression, and the needed knowledge to have worthwhile creative ideas, are not helping the child to become creative in any meaningful way; they are making certain that he would never have anything worthwhile to contribute to society."

"The tragedy is that for 30 years or more children in the UK and the USA have been prevented from learning all about the necessary infrastructure on which any creative endeavour must be based."

Hans J. Eysenck, Genius, 1995

Freitag, 14. September 2018

An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish:

"I am persuaded that there is absolutely no limit to the absurdities that can, by government action, come to be generally believed. Give me an adequate army, with power to provide it with more pay and better food than falls to the lot of the average man, and I will undertake, within thirty years, to make the majority of the population believe that two and two are three, that water freezes when it gets hot and boils when it gets cold, or any other nonsense that might seem to serve the interest of the State. Of course, even when these beliefs had been generated, people would not put the kettle in the ice-box when they wanted it to boil. That cold makes water boil would be a Sunday truth, sacred and mystical, to be professed in awed tones, but not to be acted on in daily life."

Betrand Russell

Maps and Territories:

S. I. Hayakawa:

"The first of the principles governing symbols is this: The symbol is NOT the thing symbolized; the word is NOT the thing; the map is NOT the territory it stands for." 

"Now, to use the famous metaphor by Alfred Korzybski in his Science and Sanity (1933), this verbal world ought to stand in relation to the extensional world as a map does to the territory it is supposed to represent. If a child grows to adulthood with a verbal world in his head which corresponds fairly closely to the extensional world that he finds around him in his widening experience, he is in relatively small danger of being shocked or hurt by what he finds, because his verbal world has told him what, more or less, to expect. He is prepared for life. If, however, he grows up with a false map in his head [...] he will constantly be running into trouble, wasting his efforts, and acting like a fool."

"We all inherit a great deal of useless knowledge, and a great deal of misinformation and error (maps that were formerly thought to be accurate), so that there is always a portion of what we have been told that must be discarded. But the cultural heritage of our civilization that is transmitted to us -- our socially pooled knowledge, both scientific and humane -- has been valued principally because we have believed that it gives us accurate maps of experience."

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Alfred Korzybski:

"If the map shows a different structure from the territory represented—for instance, shows the cities in a wrong order, or some places east of others while in the actual territory they are west,—then the map is worse than useless, as it misinforms and leads astray. One who made use of it could never be certain of reaching his destination."

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S. I. Hayakawa:

>The human being, like any other creature, begins to make his acquaintance with the extensional world from infancy. Unlike other creatures, however, he begins to receive, as soon as he can learn to understand, reports, reports of reports, reports of reports of reports, and so on. In addition, he receives inferences made from reports, inferences made from other inferences, and so on. By the time a child is a few years old, has gone to school and to Sunday school, and has made a few friends, he has accumulated a considerable amount of second- and third-hand information about morals, geography, history, nature, people, games—all of which information together constitutes his verbal world.
Now this verbal world ought to stand in relation to the extensional world as a map does to the territory it is supposed to represent If the child grows to adulthood with a verbal world in his head which corresponds fairly closely to the extensional world that he finds around him in his widening experience, he is in relatively small danger of being shocked or hurt by what he finds, because his verbal world has told him what, more or less, to expect. He is prepared for life. If, however, he grows up with a false map in his head—that is, with a head crammed with false knowledge and superstition—he will constantly be running into trouble, wasting his efforts, and acting like a fool. He will not be adjusted to the world as it is[.]
Some of the follies we commit because of false maps in our heads are so commonplace that we do not even think of them as remarkable. There are those who protect themselves from accidents by carrying a rabbit’s foot in the pocket. Some refuse to sleep on the thirteenth floor of hotels—this is so common that most big hotels, even in the capitals of our scientific culture, skip “13” in numbering their floors. Some plan their lives on the basis of astrological predictions. Some play fifty-to-one shots on the basis of dream books. [...] All such people are living in verbal worlds that bear little, if any, resemblance to the extensional world.
Now, no matter how beautiful a map may be, it is useless to a traveler unless it accurately shows the relationship of places to each other, the structure of the territory. If we draw, for example, a big dent in the outline of a lake for, let us say, artistic reasons, the map is worthless. But if we are just drawing maps for fun without paying any attention to the structure of the region, there is nothing in the world to prevent us from putting in all the extra curlicues and twists we want in the lakes, rivers, and roads. No harm will be done unless someone tries to plan a trip by such a map. Similarly, by means of imaginary or false reports, or by false inferences from good reports, or by mere rhetorical exercises, we can manufacture at will, with language, “maps” which have no reference to the extensional world. Here again no harm will be done unless someone makes the mistake of regarding such “maps” as representing real “territories.”
We all inherit a great deal of useless knowledge, and a great deal of misinformation and error, so that there is always a portion of what we have been told that must be discarded. But the cultural heritage of our civilization that IS transmitted to us — our socially pooled knowledge, both scientific and humane — has been valued principally because we have believed that it gives us accurate maps of experience. The analogy of verbal worlds to maps is an important one and will be referred to frequently throughout this book. It should be noticed at this point, however, that there are two ways of getting false maps of the world into our heads: first, by having them given to us, second, by making them up for ourselves by misreading the true maps given to us. <

Donnerstag, 13. September 2018

Hintergrundrauschen:

In menschlichen Köpfen findet sich Hintergrundrauschen. In einigen außergewöhnlich viel, in einigen außergewöhnlich wenig. Ein effektiver Filter macht sich wohl auch über die Klarheit oder Relevanz sprachlicher Äußerungen bemerkbar.

World Population in 2018

https://ourworldindata.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Population-cartogram_World.png

Signalquellen und Störsignale:

Was eine Signalquelle und was eine Quelle von Störsignalen ist, wandelt sich beständig. Will man einen bestimmten Sachverhalt vestehen, können sich Signalquellen, die sonst relevante Information vermitteln, vorübergehend in Störsignalquellen verwandeln.

Mittwoch, 12. September 2018

The gossip test:

"Working in the Admiralty, I had several friends among the naval officers. They were interested in science but knew even less about it than I did. One day I noticed that I was telling them, with some enthusiasm, about recent advances in antibiotics - penicillin and such. Only that evening did it occur to me that I myself really knew almost nothing about these topics, apart from what I had read in Penguin Science or some similar periodical. It came to me that I was not really telling them about science. I was gossiping about it. This insight was a revelation to me. I had discovered the gossip test - what you are really interested in is what you gossip about. Without hesitation, I applied it to my recent conversations. Quickly I narrowed down my interests to two main areas: the borderline between the living and the nonliving, and the workings of the brain."

Francis Crick, What Mad Pursuit
"It is amateurs who have one big bright beautiful idea that they can never abandon. Professionals know that they have to produce theory after theory before they are likely to hit the jackpot. The very process of abandoning one theory for another gives them a degree of critical detachment that is almost essential if they are to succeed."

Francis Crick, What Mad Pursuit

Dienstag, 11. September 2018

Tim Hunt on Creativity in Science:

Noise:

"To incorporate noise in a system of communication, it is only necessary to suppose, as Claude Shannon did, that the receiver's sensors have input from two sources: one is the source of the signals, the other the source of noise."

R. Haven Wiley

Working at Bell Labs:

"I was there for over thirty years and I was never once told what I should be working on[. At] the end of each year you had to write down on one side of one peace of a paper what you had done during the year and they used that to determine how much they would pay you next year."

Brian Kernighan

Freies Lernen:

Nutzt man die Freizeit zum Lernen, so scheint mir insbesondere folgender Rat hilfreich zu sein: "Nimm dir Zeit. Haste beim Lernen nicht. Nur so erwirbst du dir solides Wissen."

What's new?

>In the 1974 classic Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, Robert Pirsig decries the conversational opener "What's new?" - arguing that the question, "if pursued exclusively, results only in an endless parade of trivia and fashion"[.]<

B. Christian & T. Griffiths,
Algorithms to live by

Montag, 10. September 2018

Erkunden oder Ausschöpfen?

Was ist sinnvoller?:

  • Tausend Bücher oberflächlich anlesen oder drei ausgewählte Bücher gründlich verarbeiten?
  • Mit hundert Personen oberflächlichen Kontakt knüpfen oder mit drei Personen tiefen Kontakt eingehen?

Sonntag, 9. September 2018

Wahrheit und Wert in der Philosophie:

Eine wahre bzw. plausible Aussage ist nicht zwingenderweise auch wertvoll bzw. hochgradig relevant. Einem "Philosophierenden" sollte es somit nicht primär darum gehen, im Kopf eine große Fülle an plausiblen Gedanken zu beherbergen, sondern darum, Gedanken zu denken, die sowohl plausibel als auch relevant erscheinen.

Das Erlebnis:

"[Wir] sagen, es sei uns etwas Erlebnis, wenn wir damit meinen, dass uns etwas nicht fremd und distant geblieben, sondern zu einem Stück unseres Selbst geworden sei."

Philipp Lersch

Freitag, 7. September 2018

Crisis points:

Garry Kasparov:

>'Crisis' really means a turning-point, a critical moment when the stakes are high and the outcome uncertain. It also implies a point of no return. This signifies both danger and opportunity[.]<

>History is the story of crisis points, one after another.<

Consequences:

Algorithms to live by,
Brian Christian & Tom Griffiths:

>One day as a child, Brian was complaining to his mother about all the things he had to do: his homework, his chores .... "Technically, you don't have to do anything," his mother replied. "You don't have to do what your teachers tell you. You don't have to do what I tell you. You don't even have to obey the law. There are consequences to everything, and you get to decide whether you want to face those consequences."<

Maximization:


"Maximization is a style of decision-making characterized by seeking the best option through an exhaustive search through alternatives. It is contrasted with satisficing, in which individuals evaluate options until they find one that is 'good enough'."

Degrees of plausibility in science:

Francis Crick:

"I mean, that's one of the curious things about the scientific life, [...] you don’t have certainty, but nevertheless you have such [...] a range of degrees of plausibility that the very plausible ones approximate to certainty. Whereas when you look at what other people believe, they have a feeling of certainty for things which are probably completely wrong, you see, which is bizarre in a way."

Francis Crick about James Watson:

https://www.webofstories.com/play/francis.crick/36

"he was young, but he was obviously very bright. I mean, you know, you could tell that just talking to him straight away. And, the fact that he had a strange manner… we were used to that sort of thing in Cambridge so it didn’t strike you as particularly odd, whereas it probably would strike you as odd… it would strike people as odd in more conventional places."

"he speaks… he speaks in a funny way and he is apt to express himself rather… his mind rather freely and a few things like that. These are some of the things you’ve got to get… expect with bright young men in places like Oxford and Cambridge. I mean, there are bright people who are perfectly normal and well adjusted but they don’t always give that impression, I mean, many of them."

"talking to Jim was always fun"

Tim Hunt about Francis Crick:


Francis Crick - What you gossip about is what you’re interested in:

https://www.webofstories.com/play/francis.crick/30

"The test I used which I stumbled on was to see what it was I was gossiping to people about. What you’re telling people, what you gossip about is what you’re interested in, and that’s what I found I was telling them about, so I decided that’s what I must be interested in."

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See also:
What makes science unique?

Dogs herding sheep:


[via David MacDonald]

Mittwoch, 5. September 2018

Mate Choice:

"In general the conditions upon which discrimination, when possible, can usefully be exercised seem to be (i) that the acceptance of one mate precludes the effective acceptance of alternative mates, and (ii) that the rejection of an offer will be followed by other offers, either certainly, or with such high probability, that the risk of their non-occurrence shall be smaller than the probable advantage to be gained by the choice of a mate."

Ronald A. Fisher

Francis Crick - On Motivation:

https://www.webofstories.com/play/francis.crick/80

Montag, 3. September 2018

The utility of bad feelings:

"People of all statuses may get lethargic and glum when social, sexual, or professional prospects look dim, and then grow optimistic and energetic when opportunities arise. It's as if they have been resting up for a big match. And if no opportunities arise, and lethargy passes into mild depression, this mood may goad them into a fruitful shift of course - changing careers, jettisoning ungrateful friends, abandoning the pursuit of an elusive mate."

Robert Wright, The moral animal

Sonntag, 2. September 2018

Theorie:

"Die Vorgehensweise [der Wissenschaft ist] die einer Abbildung: ... die Erscheinungen der wirklichen Welt [werden durch Worte repräsentiert]. In stärker formalisierten Theorien oder Darstellungsweisen können das auch Buchstaben oder andere Symbole sein. Ein mehr oder weniger komplexes System solcher Repräsentationen beobachtbarer Erscheinungen und Sachverhalte können wir eine Theorie oder ein Modell der Wirklichkeit nennen. Mit dieser Abbildung oder Repräsentation von Erscheinungen durch Worte oder Symbole gehen Klassifikations- und Abstraktionsprozesse einher: Es wird nicht die Gesamtheit der Erscheinung abgebildet, sondern nur jeweils für relevant erachtete Aspekte[.] Es ist für eine Wissenschaft eine sehr wichtige Frage, welche Aspekte oder Merkmale der Wirklichkeit bei ihrer Abbildung oder Repräsentation durch eine Theorie sprachlich berücksichtigt und abgebildet werden[.]"

P. R. Hofstätter & D. Wendt

Samstag, 1. September 2018

Die Brute-Force-Methode

Wikipedia:

"Die Brute-Force-Methode (von englisch brute force ‚rohe Gewalt‘) bzw. Methode der rohen Gewalt, auch Exhaustionsmethode (kurz Exhaustion von lateinisch exhaurire ‚ausschöpfen‘), ist eine Lösungsmethode für Probleme aus den Bereichen Informatik, Kryptologie und Spieltheorie, die auf dem Ausprobieren aller möglichen (oder zumindest vieler möglicher) Fälle beruht. Auch der Begriff erschöpfende Suche (engl. exhaustive search) ist in Gebrauch."

Versüchtelung:

"In immer größeren Teilen der Bevölkerung scheinen sich süchtige Verhaltensweisen in Schwachformen auszubreiten. Und das ist dann das Reservoir, aus dem sich die manifesten Suchtkrankheiten rekrutieren.
Diese 'Versüchtelung' kann sich z. B. darin zeigen, dass wir nicht angemessen mit Problemen umgehen, indem wir ihnen ausweichen und uns stattdessen mit Alkohol oder einem großen Essen 'zudröhnen', indem wir uns am Spielautomaten oder mit einer Kopfschmerztablette entspannen. Das hat mit Sucht im engeren Sinne noch nichts zu tun, aber es ist eine unangemessene (weil ausweichende) Konfliktlösung."

Werner Gross

Donnerstag, 30. August 2018

Modelle:

Für eine Person, in deren Kopf sich einige schöne Modelle finden, wird manches oder gar vieles von dem, was sich um sie herum ereignet, redundant bzw. wenig überraschend oder verwunderlich. Ungewissheitsverringerung ist die erfreuliche Wirkung guter Modelle: Sie ermöglichen uns, die Zukunft teilweise, manche Aspekte der Zukunft zur Gänze, vorwegzunehmen, und erleichtern hierdurch sowohl die Einschätzung der Sachlage als auch das Treffen angemessener Entscheidungen.

Montag, 27. August 2018

Redundanz:

Salopp gesagt: Ein Maß für die Entfernung zwischen der tatsächlichen Unsicherheit und der maximalen Unsicherheit. Bzw. eigentlich: Ein Maß für die Differenz zwischen der maximalen Unsicherheit und der tatsächlichen Unsicherheit.

Unklarheit:

Lernen erfolgt wohl primär in Situationen, in denen ein gewisses Maß an Unklarheit darüber besteht, was getan werden sollte // wie eine Aufgabe gelöst werden sollte. Bewegen wir uns auf gar zu bekannten und sicheren Wegen, treffen wir nur selten auf Lernmöglichkeiten.

Sonntag, 26. August 2018

Handlungsunsicherheit:

Ein sinnvolles Maß an Handlungsunsicherheit ist sicherlich dem Nichtvorhandensein von Handlungsunsicherheit vorzuziehen. Bei allzu großer Handlungsunsicherheit ist der Mensch zur Passivität verurteilt. Bei Abwesenheit erstarrt das Handeln.

Dauerfernsehen:

Eine Art Flucht vor sich selbst.

Samstag, 25. August 2018

Unterhaltsame Gesprächspartner:

Häufig sind das Personen, in deren Köpfen sich eine große Fülle an Modellen über Phänomene dieser Welt findet.

Verinnerlichung des Inhalts von Texten:

Z.B. indem man den Text in eigenen Worten zusammenfasst.

[Siehe auch: aufwändiges Erinnern]

Informationsgehalt von Texten:

Ein Text ist dann besonders informativ, wenn er uns ermöglicht innere Modelle zu überarbeiten oder unseren Vorrat an bestehenden Modellen um neue Modelle erweitert. Ein Text ist dann für einen Leser redundant bzw. informationslos, wenn er nicht dazu anregen kann, Gedanken zu überarbeiten oder den Vorrat an Gedanken mit weiteren Gedanken anzureichern.

Freitag, 24. August 2018

Markierungen:

Es macht wenig Sinn, besonders informative Stellen eines Buches oder Textes zu markieren, wenn man sich anschließend nicht auch Zeit nimmt, den Informationsgehalt dieser Stellen abzubauen.

Donnerstag, 23. August 2018

Sonntag, 19. August 2018

Price and Steven's Group-Splitting Model:

"Price and Stevens (1998, 1999; Stevens & Price, 2000) advanced the hypothesis that schizotypal traits promote charismatic/religious leadership, and play an adaptive role at the group level by favoring the splitting and dispersal of human communities. Many aspects of positive schizotypy - magical thinking, paranoid ideation, and the tendency to form novel and unusual ideas and express them in idiosyncratic ways - can contribute to a compelling leader personality, often with religious and messianic overtones. According to Price and Stevens, schizotypal leaders act as catalyzers for the origin of new belief systems; if they are successful, the subgroup that form around them and their beliefs may eventually split from the original group and become new social entities. ... schizotypy works as a high-risk strategy for the individual, with potentially high gains (becoming a charismatic leader) as well as losses (ostracism, schizophrenia). In some respects, schizotypy would be analogous to the adaptive dispersal phenotypes found in many other organisms, whereby some individuals develop an alternative morphological and/or behavioral profile that causes them away from the natal territory (e.g. swarming locusts)."

Marco Del Giudice; Evolutionary Psychiatry

Intragenomic conflicts:

"Intragenomic conflicts (such as those between maternally and paternally expressed genes) also tend to produce maladaptive outcomes for the person as a whole. In the presence of intragenomic conflict, the developing phenotype is subject to opposing forces, much like in a game of tug-of-war. The tension between different sets of genes with opposite effects increases phenotypic variability and, consequently, the likelihood of reaching maladaptive levels of trait expression. If for any reason the dynamic equilibrium is broken - for example because of disruptive mutations on one side of the conflict - the resulting unbalance may easily determine dysregulated or frankly pathological outcomes. Conflicts between brain-expressed imprinted genes seem to play a role in the development of some mental disorders, most notably autism, schizophrenia, and other psychotic conditions ( Byars et al., 2014; Crespi & Badcock, 2008; Crespi et al., 2010; Wilkins, 2011)."

Marco Del Giudice; Evolutionary Psychiatry

Freundlichkeit & Feindlichkeit:

Freundlichkeit und Feindlichkeit lassen sich als Gestimmtheiten auffassen: als Kooperationsbereitschaft und als Kampfbereitschaft.

The diametrical model of autism and psychosis:

"At the core of the [diametrical model of autism and psychosis proposed by Crespi and Badcock] is the idea that psychosis spectrum disorders (including SSDs and BDs) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) arise at the opposite ends of a continuum of cognitive specialization, ranging from extreme investment in mentalistic cognition (psychosis) to extreme investment in mechanistic cognition (autism)."

Marco Del Giudice; Evolutionary Psychiatry

The spectrum of bipolar phenomena:

"Like the schizophrenia spectrum, the spectrum of bipolar phenomena ranges all the way from normal personality traits to severe psychotic symptoms. The broad dimension of personality underlying the risk of bipolar disorders is usually labeled hypomania. Hypomanic traits have two main facets: a facet of mood volatility (cyclothymia) that is strongly linked to neuroticism, and a facet of excitement and vitality (hyperthymia) that overlaps with extraversion and openness."

"Hypomanic traits are moderately correlated with schizotypy. Like positive schizotypy, hypomania is a robust predictor of artistic and verbal creativity, especially in combination with high intelligence. In addition to stimulating rich and unusual associations, hypomanic traits increase ideation fluency, allowing people to generate thoughts and ideas at a faster pace. Artists tend to be above average in hypomania, and creativity - both artistic and scientific - is elevated in the relatives of BD patients (Baas et al., 2016; Furnham et al., 2008, Jamison, 1993; Kyaga, 2015; Rawlings & Locarnini, 2008; Srivastava et al., 2010; Vellante et al., 2011). The evidence indicates that creativity is enhanced in hypomanic personalities and people with mild manic symptoms, but not in those experiencing full-blown manic episodes (Miklowitz & Johnson, 2013)."

Marco Del Giudice; Evolutionary Psychiatry

Freitag, 17. August 2018

Mathematics:

"One might define mathematics as the study of structures involving specified sets of symbols that are combined using specified operations and that are related to each other in specified ways."

David J. Hand

Donnerstag, 16. August 2018

"The idea of years of challenge-exceeding-skill practice leading to moments of challenge-meeting-skill flow explains why elite performance can look so effortless: in a sense, it is."

Angela Duckworth

Mittwoch, 15. August 2018

"Almost anything can be interesting once. Only a few things ever become endlessly fascinating, and nothing is endlessly fascinating for everyone."

Paul Silvia

[See also: On Exploration and Play]

Affluence Scripts:

>How does script theory explain interests? Although Tomkins never specifically addressed interests, they would fall under the category of affluence scripts, “which address neither the damages, the limitations, the contaminations, nor the toxicities of the human condition, but rather those scenes which promise and deliver intense and/or enduring positive affects of excitement or enjoyment. These script the sources of the individual's zest for life” (Tomkins, 1991). Affluence scripts specify what the person will find to be fun and interesting. As with all scripts, they begin with a single scene involving an emotion and an object. An interest would develop when an activity arouses the interest affect—perhaps a high school student happens to watch a TV show on forensic science and is interested in how fiber evidence can catch untidy criminals. At this point it's impossible to know if an interest script will develop, unless the experience was so overwhelming as to form a script in itself. But perhaps the person runs across the same show the next week and is interested in how forensic scientists analyze questioned documents. Here we have the rudiments of script. These two experiences will cohere, given their core similarities, and be magnified by the emotional feelings of interest. A simple meaning emerges from this nascent script—“forensic science is fun,” perhaps.

The person can now predict and anticipate circumstances that will create interest—the script influences scenes. Should the student feel bored, for example, the script specifies forensic science as a promising possibility for interest and enjoyment. And, of course, this script can expand into a broader, more guiding script if more emotional scenes are added. The student might experience interest while reading a book on criminal profiling—this set of experiences would be assimilated and further magnify the script. The script might eventually become strong enough to influence major life decisions; the high school student might apply to colleges with good programs in forensic science. If these years of scenes continue to create interest and enjoyment, the script will influence career selection. But if they don't, then the script will change, either by being demagnified (incorporating scenes with relatively minor affect) or by including scenes with opposing affects.<

Paul Silvia, Exploring the Psychology of Interest

Dienstag, 14. August 2018

Interest and Learning:

"If interest doesn't enhance learning because of heightened attention, then how does interest affect learning? Research suggests that depth of processing might be responsible. ... Perhaps interest leads people to process text more deeply. In turn, deeper processing leads to better comprehension and recall of the text. Many experiments support this position (see Schiefele, 1999)." 

"Interest appears to promote learning through several mechanisms. Intuition to the contrary, interest doesn't seem to increase attention. Early experiments found that interest increased attention to text (Anderson, 1982; Asher, 1980); recent experiments found that interest reduced attention (McDaniel et al., 2000; Shirey & Reynolds, 1988). A second mechanism, depth of processing, has received stronger support. The interested reader approaches and processes text differently from the uninterested reader. Interest promotes focusing on the text's meaning and building a propositional representation, whereas boredom promotes focusing on the text's superficial aspects (Schiefele, 1999, 2001)."

Paul Silvia, Exploring the Psychology of Interest

Conflict:

"A common form of conflict is receiving information that differs from existing information, such as expectancy violation, or perceiving incongruent parts within a whole object. Stimuli can also arouse conflict by implying different and incompatible categorizations."

Paul Silvia, Exploring the Psychology of Interest

Complexity:

>Complex patterns have more elements than do simple patterns, more dissimilarity between the elements, and less integration of several elements into a single unit. All told, “one might say roughly that it refers to the amount of variety or diversity in a stimulus pattern” (Berlyne, 1960).<

Paul Silvia, Exploring the Psychology of Interest

Curiosity and Information Gaps:

>Loewenstein (1994) offers an intriguing theory of curiosity based on information theory. He proposes an information gap theory, which he says “views curiosity as arising when attention becomes focused on a gap in one's knowledge. Such information gaps produce the feeling of deprivation labeled curiosity. The curious individual is motivated to obtain the missing information to reduce or eliminate the feeling of deprivation”. Loewenstein defines information gaps using information theory's uncertainty formula, [formula]. The absolute size of an information gap is the person's “informational goal” (usually total certainty) minus the person's current level of information.< 

Paul Silvia, Exploring the Psychology of Interest

Uncertainty:

"Uncertainty has a technical meaning based on information theory (Shannon & Weaver, 1949). Information theory isn't a theory with a specific content or subject matter (Frick, 1959; Garner, 1962). It's probably better described as a perspective, a way of thinking about the nature and structure of information. As noted by Berlyne (1965): “A certain degree of uncertainty is said to exist when (1) any number of alternative events can occur, (2) there is no knowing in advance which will occur at a particular time, and (3) each alternative occurs with a specifiable relative frequency or probability”. Information theory specifies uncertainty as [formula] in which p is the probability that event i will occur (Attneave, 1959). According to this formula, uncertainty has some interesting properties. First, uncertainty increases as the number of alternatives increases, all else equal, because uncertainty is a sum across alternatives. For example, an election with five candidates is more uncertain than an election with two candidates. Second, uncertainty increases as the alternative events become equally probable. An election is more uncertain when all five candidates have an equal chance of winning and less uncertain when one candidate is the clear favorite. Combining these two properties, we see that uncertainty approaches a psychological maximum when a large number of alternatives are equally likely."

Paul Silvia, Exploring the Psychology of Interest

Novelty:

"The key, Paul [Silvia] explained, is that novelty for the beginner comes in one form, and novelty for the expert in another. For the beginner, novelty is anything that hasn't been encountered before. For the expert, novelty is nuance."

Angela Duckworth

Freitag, 10. August 2018

Vögel und ihre Laster:

"Heinroth bezeichnet den jungen Kuckuck als ein «Laster» der fütternden Wirtsvögel, da er ihre Reaktionen viel stärker auslöst, als artgleiche Jungvögel."

Konrad Lorenz

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"Die ersten Untersucher des AAM (LORENZ, 1937; PETERS, 1937) waren ausgesprochener oder unausgesprochenermaßen der Ansicht, daß das natürliche Objekt, wenigstens in der Regel, die stärkste denkbare auslösend wirksame Reizsituation darstelle. Dem ist nicht so. Die Relation zwischen zwei Reizen läßt sich übertreiben, Kontraste können verstärkt, Konturausbuchtungen überhöht, die Aufeinanderfolge wechselnder Reize verschnellert werden und auch «absolut» wirkende Reize, wie Farbe und Größe, können wirksamer gewählt werden, als dies unter natürlichen Bedingungen je vorkommt. Auf diese Weise gewinnt man Attrappen, deren auslösende Wirkung die des biologisch adaequaten Objekts gewaltig übertrifft. Ein dunkelrotes, dünnes Holzstäbchen mit mehreren weißen Ringen am unteren Ende vor einem Möwenkücken vertikal auf- und abbewegt, löst die Bettelreaktion genau doppelt so stark aus, wie das fütternde Alttier, weil das absolute Merkmal rot, der Kontrast des roten Schnabelflecks gegen den Hintergrund, die Schmalheit, die Steilstellung und die Bewegungsweise, alles Schlüsselreize des Betteln auslösenden Mechanismus, im Vergleich zu den vom normalen Objekt ausgehenden verstärkt sind (TINBERGEN & PERDECK, 1950). Eine Silbermöwe verläßt ihr eigenes Gelege, um ein sehr viel größeres, kontrastreicher geflecktes Attrappenei zu bebrüten und kommt von diesem nicht los, obwohl sie die befriedigenden Endhandlungen, Einrollen, Niedersetzen und Brüten an ihm gar nicht durchführen kann (BAERENDS, 1954). Wie MAGNUS (1954) zeigte, wird der Balzanflug des männlichen Kaisermantels durch den Wechsel zwischen hellgelber und dunkler Farbe ausgelöst, den der Flügelschlag des Weibchens erzeugt. Die stärkste Wirkung liegt jedoch nicht bei der Frequenz, die der natürlichen Situation entspricht, sondern steigt mit ihrem Zunehmen bis zur elektrophysiologisch nachgewiesenen Verschmelzungsgrenze stetig an."

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"vieles, was beim Menschen als Laster bezeichnet wird, beruht auf der Suche nach übernormal auslösenden Objekten." 

Pseudo-ADD:

"Psychiatrists Edward Hallowell and John Ratey, both of Harvard, find that people afflicted with pseudo-ADD have inadvertently trained their brains to constantly seek new information rather than thoroughly process existing information."

Scott Hagwood

[Pseudo ADD ~ (maladaptive) hyperexplorative behavior; exploration and exploitation I, exploration and exploitation II, exploration and exploitation III]
"The mind consists of two very powerful but opposite forces —
the power to focus and the desire to drift."

Scott Hagwood

Bedeutungsgehalte:

Einem Menschen ist es nahezu unmöglich, sich in der Welt zu orientieren, wenn er sämtlichen Ereignissen, die sich um ihn herum ereignen, ein gleiches oder ein ähnliches Maß an Bedeutung zumisst.

Repetition:

"You’ve heard the old saying about the three most important things in selecting real estate: location, location, location. Unfortunately, too many people assign a similar importance to a basic memory technique: repetition, repetition, repetition. They seem to think that if we just hammer away hard enough and long enough with brute repetitive force, we’ll chisel the information into our long-term memory."

Scott Hagwood

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"Mastering your memory means learning to minimize the drudgery of repetition. Going over and over material is an enormous waste of time, energy, and effort. In order for your memory to grow, you must give the information enough time to incubate. A farmer who plants seeds in the field does not immediately return to the spot. A wise farmer understands the development cycle of each crop and returns at the appointed time to cultivate the new growth. So it is with memory. Treat repetition as a spice, using just enough to enhance memory."

Dienstag, 7. August 2018

Stereotypies:

"[The] development of stereotypies indicates that well-being has probably been poor, with the animal motivated to show a behaviour pattern that it could not perform normally or to completion."

C.J. Mason 

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"Stereotypies often develop in situations of low stimulus input, physical restraint, and inescapable fear or frustration. These are situations that behavioural and physiological data indicate to be aversive and stressful. Indeed, a behavioural sign of aversion or internal conflict, such as an attempt to escape or a displacement activity, is sometimes the very source from which a stereotypy develops. Furthermore, once well established, stereotypies are often elicited on exposure to a stressor, or to barren conditions."

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"Established stereotypies are also commonly performed when little is happening in the environment, and arousal is probably low. This is true, for example, of flying to and fro incaged birds (Hinde 1962), finger-sucking and other stereotypies in children (Levy 1944; Berkson 1967) and rocking in laboratory-caged chimpanzees (Berkson 1967)."

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"Like a scar, a stereotypy tells us something about past events. It suggests that previously, a behaviour pattern has been repeatedly elicited, and probably in an environment that has demanded little variation in performance. In captivity, sustained repetition may occur because the behaviour cannot reach a satisfactory, consummatory conclusion, and in barren conditions the behaviour is unlikely to be interupted by higher priority behaviour patterns. Thus stereotypies should warn us that the animal has probably been in an unchanging and frustrating environment, and that its welfare has probably been unsatisfactory. Much evidence does indeed link the development of stereotypies with specific sub-optimal environments. The development of a stereotypy in an individual is therefore the sign of an animal that has probably been suffering, and whose well-being may be poor still."
"rule-governed competitive sports are 'played', but they are rarely if ever conducted playfully. Sports and many games are often treated as being deadly serious."

Patrick Bateson

Play:

"The more an individual has been deprived of play, the more it will play when given the opportunity, as though compensating for the previous shortfall (Jensen 1999). More saliently, an individual is prepared to work in order to be given the opportunity to engage in play."

Patrick Bateson

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"An individual absorbed in play seems not to require any external reward."

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"In the case of play, particularly when the individual is playing on its own, the motivation is intrinsic - that is, no external reward is needed."

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"In social play the reactions of the play partner may provide additional reward, increasing the likelihood that the initiator will continue playing. If the partner doesn't respond playfully the initiator will stop."

On Exploration and Play:

"Exploration and play with novel, inanimate objects decreases relatively rapldly, as an animal evidently becomes more familiar with the potentials of the object and as novelty wears off. More complex objects will be the focus of longer periods of attention (Welker 1956a. 1956b. 1956~). Conspecifics probably continue to elicit play because their complexity and thelr almost Infinite behavioral (play) repertoire renders them almost infinitely novel."

Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff

The Play Face:

"One of the most prominent features of play is the play face."

Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff 

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"Bateson noted that the >play< of monkeys is similar to aggression. He theorized that such behavior could occur and not turn into a fight only if the animals were capable of some kind of signal which would carry the message >This is play,< or >These actions in which we now engage do not denote what those actions for which they stand would denote.<"

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"Van Lawick-Goodall (1968) reports that play usually started without the initiator showing the play face, and that only one animal at her study site fairly regularly initiated play with the expression. She observed that it was after play was well under way and particularly during contact play that the play face became evident."

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"It seems reasonable to suggest that the play face serves primarily as the expression of an emotional state associated with intense playfulness."

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"I suggest that the nonhuman primate play face is basically an emotional expression representing the emotional feeling state, playfulness (which probably feels subjectively similar-pleasurable and exciting-both to nonhuman primates and to man)."

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"Van Lawick-Goodall has emphasized, that infants take chances and learn the skills of leaping only in the relatively safe context of play."

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"The well-known work of Harlow and his colleagues indicates that at least for rhesus monkeys peer contact, and presumably play, during infancy may be essential for the subsequent adult manifestation of appropriate sexual and maternal behaviors. While animals raised in isolation or in the exclusive company of their mothers do not attain normal adult sexual or parental competence, animals raised with peers do (Harlow 1971; Harlow and Harlow 1965; Harlow, Harlow, and Suomi 1971). "

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"In two subsequent experiments, six-month-old and one-year-old isolation-raised, and consequently abnormal, animals were given the opportunity to interact with three-monthold infants (Harlow and Suomi 1971; Harlow, Harlow and Suomi 1971). The isolates first responded to the tiny infants with fear and retreat. But the infants persistently followed the retreating isolates and clung to them as they would have clung to their mothers. Soon the isolates, unable to avoid contact with the persistent infants, began to respond to them with infant-like clinging. Clinging was followed by exploration, and within weeks play began to develop between the isolate-infant pairs. The more infantile play patterns appeared first, and the more mature kinds of play patterns appeared later. Within six months of interaction with their infant "socializers" the isolates' behavior, including their play behavior, appeared to be normal. Harlow (1971) has suggested that as play progresses from one ontogenetic stage to another, each stage may prepare the way for the subsequent stage. The finding that the older isolation-raised animals went through the same play stages as infants normally pass through during ontogenetic development strongly supports this theory. It may be that while early developmental stages may not function as direct practice for adult behavior, the complete series of stages may ultimately lead to the ability to perform adult behavior patterns. "

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"Curiosity, exploration, and play appear to serve one general adaptive function: to put an animal in touch with his animate and inanimate environment. They provide a motivational mechanism that will insure assessment, experimentation, and learning about the environment." 

Montag, 6. August 2018

"Few things are as important to your quality of life as your choices about how to spend the precious resource of your free time[.]"

Winifred Gallagher

Sonntag, 29. Juli 2018

Wilhelm Busch:

Im Menschen findet sich ein Motiv bzw. eine Gruppe von Motiven, die den Menschen dazu anstiften, jede Menge Unfug zu tun. So das ungefähre Leitthema der illustrierten Geschichten von Wilhelm Busch.

Samstag, 28. Juli 2018

Pomodoro-Technik

Fokussierungstechnik: Für einen bestimmten Zeitraum (z.B. 20 oder 25 Minuten) engt sich das Denken stark ein / wenden sich die Gedanken einem einzelnen Thema zu. Danach folgt ein kurze (z.B. 5 minütige) Phase der Enstpannung. Phasen der Anspannung wechseln mit Phasen der Entspannung bis ein bestimmtes Tagessoll (z.B. 8 fokussierte Einheiten) erfüllt ist.

Die Kernaufgabe besteht somit in einer wiederholten, bewussten, gezielten Einengung bzw. Beschränkung gedanklicher Spielräume.

Freitag, 27. Juli 2018

"It's not only deep thinking that requires a calm, attentive mind. It's also empathy and compassion."

Nicholas Carr

Das Gehirn "von der Leine lassen"

Freizeit/freie Tätigkeit:
Sofern die Möglichkeit gegeben ist, ein bis zwei Stunden am Tag einplanen, wo man das Gehirn einfach tun lässt. Alles, bis auf eigentlich "ablenkende" Tätigkeiten.

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Damit sich spontane Tätigkeit als fruchbar erweist, haben wir zuvor Grenzen abzustecken.

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Die Furcht vor der Spontanität lässt sich somit folgenderweise interpretieren: Als Furcht, dem Gehirn freien Lauf zu lassen.
"I wrote and rewrote, and lost all my fluency."

Keith Johnstone

[See also: Prewriting]

Mittwoch, 25. Juli 2018

Latente Inhibition:

"Latente Inhibition ist eine Form des Lernens, die ständig abläuft und die kaum jemand bemerkt: zu lernen, was bedeutungslos ist."

Konrad Lehmann

Ineffizienz:

Was passiert, wenn ein Mensch "die Wege, die am raschesten zum Ziel führen", verlässt? Wie viel Ineffizienz (+ Spiel und Übermut) kann sich ein Mensch leisten?

Konformismus

Konrad Lehmann:

"Die meisten Menschen sind Konformisten. Sie sind ängstlich darum bemüht, nicht aufzufallen; sie benehmen sich gerne so wie alle anderen in ihrem Umfeld, kleiden sich genauso, sprechen ebenso, denken - wenn man das so nennen will - das Gleiche und zweifeln selten an der Weisheit der Mehrheit. Man soll das nicht verachten: ... Anscheinden ist der Drang zur Konformität ein sozialer Klebstoff, der nicht nur komplexe Gruppenstrukturen, sondern auch - überraschenderweise - hohe Formen der Intelligenz erst möglich macht. Doch so sehr Konformisten auch die Fundamente der Gesellschaft sein mögen: Ihre ideensprühenden Geistesvulkane sind sie eher nicht, sagt die Wissenschaft."

Flow and Creativity

Arne Dietrich:

"The spontaneous creativity mode and the experience of flow are similar in that they both operate in the mind’s unconscious hinterland. But this is also where the similarities end."

The prediction machine

Arne Dietrich:

"An emerging organizing theme in neuroscience is that the brain has evolved, fundamentally, to make predictions (Bar, 2007; Grush, 2004). The claim here is not that the business of anticipating events is one of the brain’s important chores, it is the main reason for having (big) brains in the first place."

"We can interact with the world in an infinite number of ways. Such complexity would quickly overwhelm us. So for behavior to be purposeful and timely in such a high-dimensional environment, the set of possible choices must be pruned. We accomplish this by continuously, automatically and, importantly, unconsciously generating expectations that meaningfully inform – constrain – perception and action at every moment in life (Llinás, 2009)."

Dienstag, 24. Juli 2018

To prune

Wiktionary:
  • (transitive, horticulture) To remove excess material from a tree or shrub; to trim, especially to make more healthy or productive.
  • (transitive, figuratively) To cut down or shorten (by the removal of unnecessary material).

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  • to cut or lop off (twigs, branches, or roots).
  • to cut or lop superfluous or undesired twigs, branches, or roots from; trim.
  • to rid or clear of (anything superfluous or undesirable).
  • to remove (anything considered superfluous or undesirable).

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"many major mental illnesses start to emerge in adolescence, which may be caused by aberrant synaptic pruning."

Montag, 23. Juli 2018

Konzentriertes Arbeiten

Einige Punkte aus Deep Work:

  • Bedeutung des maximal fokussierten Arbeitens für die Wertschöpfung
  • Problem: Geschäftigkeit/Pseudo-Produktivität
  • Philosophie der Handwerkskunst
    • "virtues like quality, craftsmanship, and mastery"
    • vollkonzentrierte Tätigkeit: eigentlich wertschöpfende/sinnvolle Tätigkeit
  • Verschiedene Herangehensweisen an das tiefe Arbeiten
  • Teamarbeit & tiefes Arbeiten
  • Benefits of Laziness (Vermeidung der Geschäftigkeit)
  • Shutdown-Prozedere am Nachmittag oder Abend
  • Toleranz von Langeweile zur Steigerung der Konzentrationsfähigkeit
  • "Produktive Meditation"
  • Problem des "Any-Benefit-Mindsets"
  • Umgang mit sozialen Medien
  • Umgang mit E-Mails

Samstag, 21. Juli 2018

Denken wie ein Handwerksmann:

So Good They Can't Ignore You, Cal Newport


Zusammenfassend einige Punkte:

  • "Suche nach der eigenen Leidenschaft" - Leerformel, generell nicht praktikabel
    • negative Fallbeispiele
  •  Fähigkeitenentwicklung für das Arbeitsleben von entscheidender Bedeutung
    • "Denken wie ein Handwerksmann"
    • die Bedeutung seltener und gefragter Fähigkeiten
  • Autonomes Arbeiten und Leben erfordert als Grundlage Fähigkeiten
    • zuerst Fähigkeiten, dann Autonomie (und nicht umgekehrt)
  • Deliberate Practice (bewusstes, gezieltes Üben)
    • längerfristige Dehnung / Streckung der eigenen Fähigkeiten
    • gezieltes Üben, wenn es richtig gemacht wird, nicht angenehm
    • Gefahr: rasch erreichte Plateaus
  • Fallstricke am Weg zur Autonomie
  • Sinnkomponente beim Arbeiten ("The Importance of Mission")