Dienstag, 31. März 2020


Colin DeYoung:

"There is this idea, that the general public seems to have, that dopamine is a pleasure chemical. Dopamine is what makes you feel good. But that's not quite right. It turns out that dopamine is what makes you want things. And sometimes wanting things feels good, especially when you think you gonna get things that you want or when you are moving toward things that are exciting or pleasurable then dopamine goes along with feeling good, but that's actually due to a whole different set of neurotransmitters[.] ... You can have dopamine without pleasure though, and that's like you really want something, but you're not getting it, and so you're feeling frustrated, and that is also dopamine. That sense 'I really need to do this. I want this.' "



"A lot of what extroversion is about is being more motivated by the possibility of reward. ... One of the ways that I like to think about dopamine: It has been described as essentially regulating the cost of effort. Doing stuff has a cost. ... Extroverts just happen to be tuned in such a way that they often think it's a good idea to expand energy. Dopamine basically gives you the signal: 'Something good could happen if you put some effort out right now.' "


Ein wesentlicher Aspekt der Selbststeuerung:

Das Haushalten mit und Entwickeln von Fähigkeiten und Kräften;

Now is the Perfect Time to Start an Ultralearning Project:

[Kernthemen: Motiviertheit und Begeisterung als Indiz dafür, dass sich eine gute Gelegenheit bietet, die Einsatz erfordert; Der Fokus auf das Notwendige; Der Fokus auf das Grundlegende]

Scott H. Young:

"When I published Ultralearning last August, I had no idea how the world would have changed six months later. Self-directed learning from home has become a requirement for millions, not just a quirky pastime for a few."

"in tough times, it is how we choose to respond to our worries that will define us as people in the years to come. Did we dissolve into panic, or did we rise up and do something constructive?"

The Road of Excitement:

"Our emotions have a deeper intelligence. Excitement isn’t just an irrational impulse. Rather, it’s a sophisticated pattern-matching algorithm cultivated over years of experience. When you feel excited about something that’s those algorithms telling your conscious mind: this is an important opportunity."

The Road of Necessity:

"The second path for choosing what to learn is to focus on things that you need to know to make your life better. This includes skills for your job, classes you need to pass, certifications you ought to obtain or even the knowledge to understand what is happening in the world. Necessity may not always arouse excitement, but it can create a stable path forward into developing skills that matter."

The Road of Foundations:

"The road of foundations looks at the question of learning from the broadest view. What skills and knowledge, if I acquired them today, would create the best foundation for learning more skills and knowledge in the future?"

Cybernetic Big Five Theory - Auszüge - Teil6 - "Function and Dysfunction"

Colin DeYoung:

[Kernthema: Insbesondere die Frage: >Wie und wodurch gelingt eine "Integration" der Persönlichkeit?< Falls Teile der Auszüge Interesse wecken, bitte einfach den Artikel zur Hand nehmen. Die Auszüge spiegeln eine subjektive Auswahl von Inhalten, die dem Blogautor (also mir) interessant erscheinen. Anderen Lesern werden andere Inhalte relevant erscheinen. Von meinem Blickwinkel aus ist dieser Artikel von Colin DeYoung, wie auch viele andere Artikel des Forschers, reich an interessanten Inhalten. An einem der kommenden Tage wird eine persönliche, kommentierte Zusammenfassung des Artikels gepostet.]

"It has become increasingly clear that psychopathological traits or symptoms have almost the same five-factor interpersonal covariance structure as normal traits, and thus can be integrated with the Big Five (Krueger & Markon, 2014; Markon et al., 2005; Widiger & Mullins-Sweatt, 2009)."

"A breakdown anywhere in the system will cause problems specifically related to traits that reflect variation in the dysfunctional mechanism, but it will also incline the system to function poorly as a whole, creating frequent failures of goal-directed action, increased psychological entropy, episodes of disintegration, more frequent and intense emotional dysregulation, and the subjective sense that one is incapable of moving toward one’s goals."

"loss of reward sensitivity, manifesting in anhedonia and amotivation (low Extraversion), is a key component of depression, but extremely high reward sensitivity (high Extraversion) is a key component of mania (DeYoung, 2013; Tackett, Quilty, Sellbom, Rector, & Bagby, 2008)."

"Clinical assessment benefits from determining whether one’s characteristic adaptations are adequately functional, independently of traits—that is, whether one is able to interpret one’s own specific life experiences in a sensible manner and to make adequate progress toward one’s own personal goals (cf. Livesley, 1998; Wright, 2011). If one’s characteristic adaptations are functional, not maladaptations, then one probably should not be considered dysfunctional even in the presence of an extreme trait profile. A possible exception here might be extremely low Agreeableness—if one is perfectly capable of maintaining a coherent interpretation of self and world and of making progress toward one’s goals, but one’s behavior consistently violates the welfare of others, a diagnosis of dysfunctionmay be possible even without signs of subjective incompetence or distress."

"CB5T suggests ... that the highest and most enduring levels of well-being should be achieved when one’s characteristic adaptations are not only well adapted to one’s particular life circumstances, but also well-integrated—that is, minimally conflicting with each other, with one’s traits, and with innate needs. The notion that a well integrated personality is the key to well-being has been common in psychology, from Jung’s (1939/1968) concept of individuation, the process by which the personality becomes an undivided whole and the ultimate goal of both psychotherapy and human development, to Sheldon’s (2004) theory of optimal human being, which provides an extensive examination of ways to facilitate integration, with a particular focus on satisfying basic needs."

"one’s conscious representation of the desired future may differ in some ways from the goals that are represented unconsciously in one’s motivation systems, and this is another barrier to integration (cf. Schultheiss & Strasser, 2012)."

"If a high level of integration is to be achieved, it must be through the process of adaptation ..., leading to a well-honed suite of characteristic adaptations."

"For example, someone low in Conscientiousness may explicitly reorganize his or her personal goals so as to value long-term career success over what was previously a favorite hedonistic pursuit, and this may, over time, lead to an increase in Conscientiousness, as the top-down control exerted by the systems that underlie Conscientiousness is rendered more effective by having to compete less often with the hedonistic characteristic adaptation that was previously maladaptively high in the goal hierarchy. In order to figure out what characteristic adaptations must be changed or added to produce a well-integrated personality, one must be willing to explore anomalies, as they arise (Peterson, 1999). This means avoiding self-deception, which we have defined as ignoring subjective evidence that one’s current plans and beliefs might be in error (Peterson, Driver-Linn, & DeYoung, 2002; Peterson et al., 2003)."

"Achieving high levels of integration requires exploration of anomalous experience with sufficient caution to avoid unnecessary destabilization, but with sufficient courage to face the risk that some of one’s characteristic adaptations may be invalidated, and with sufficient humility to acknowledge when a current characteristic adaptation is in error. Refusal to acknowledge error is likely to lead to perseveration and to various future costs, including heightened risk for disintegration (Chance, Norton, Gino, & Ariely, 2011; Peterson et al., 2003). Exploration of anomaly should not always lead to abandoning a characteristic adaptation (one would be disastrously unstable if it did), but one must be willing to consider the possibility that any anomaly indicates the need for change and to do enough exploration to determine whether change is necessary or desirable (though how much exploration is enough is a difficult calibration problem, pitting present expenditure of resources against future risk). Failure to adapt, due to self-deception, is likely to contribute to much psychopathology ... In addition to avoiding self-deception, achieving a high level of integration requires paying close attention to interest, as an emotion (Peterson, 1999; Silvia, 2008), because interest indicates the potential to generate new characteristic adaptations that are well aligned with one’s traits and existing characteristic adaptations."


"Characteristic adaptations are more complicated to measure than traits, but personality psychology will benefit from increasing its focus on these constructs and better integrating them with research on traits." 

Cybernetic Big Five Theory - Auszüge - Teil5 - "Stability, Plasticity, and Adaptation"

Colin DeYoung:

[Kernthema: Die zwei Metatraits "Stability" and "Plasticity"; Die Auszüge erfüllen eher persönliche Zwecke, d.h. sie werden Lesern vermutlich nicht besonders hilfreich sein. Schön wäre es, wenn sie Lesern als Anregung dienen, den Artikel zur Hand zu nehmen und durchzulesen. Nach Teil6 wird in den folgenden Tagen eine mit persönlichen Anmerkungen angereicherte Zusammenfassung des Artikels gepostet.]

"CB5T ... contains an account of adaptation, linked to the two metatraits, that allows it to explain what is arguably the most distinctive feature of the human cybernetic system, namely that its collection of characteristic adaptations can be transformed, in ways that range from prosaic to radical (Peterson, 1999)."

"entropy, which is always spontaneously increasing and which threatens the stability of ongoing goal-directed functioning. Increases in psychological entropy occur when prediction fails and the current state is not entirely as expected, either because some interpretation has been invalidated—raising the question, ‘‘What is happening?’’—or because a strategy has failed (or is anticipated to fail) to reach its goal—raising the question, ‘‘What should I do? (DeYoung, 2013; Hirsh et al., 2012). Every experience can be categorized based on whether it entails a match to prediction or a mismatch, and any mismatch entails at least a small encounter with the unknown, an increase in psychological entropy. Human beings are profoundly adapted to these two extremely broad classes of stimuli, match and mismatch, the known and the unknown, the predictable and the unpredictable, the expected and the anomalous, order and chaos (Peterson, 1999; Peterson & Flanders, 2002). Not only do human beings possess evolved mechanisms designed to operate when events are unfolding as anticipated and one knows what to do, they also possess evolved mechanisms designed to operate when events do not unfold as anticipated."

"Increases in psychological entropy are threatening ... They are also promising, however, meaning they act as incentive rewards, because they signal the possibility of reducing psychological entropy in the longer term, either by attaining some specific reward or by acquiring information (DeYoung, 2013; Schwartenbeck et al., 2013)."

"Stability and plasticity may seem conceptually opposed, but they are in fact complementary and, also, in dynamic tension, as extreme plasticity may pose a challenge to stability and vice versa. The opposite of stability is not plasticity but instability, and the opposite of plasticity is not stability but rigidity."

"CB5T hypothesizes that the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are the major biological substrates of Stability and Plasticity, respectively (DeYoung, 2010b, 2013; DeYoung et al., 2002)."

"Not only does high Stability prevent disruption of goals by defensive impulses, however, it also prevents disruption of goals by exploratory or reward-related impulses (DeYoung, 2010a). Stability, therefore, reduces spontaneity."

"In defensive reactions to uncertainty—those related to Neuroticism and especially Withdrawal—interpretations, strategies, or goals that led to perceived error are deprioritized or simply abandoned. This is contractive learning, in which the individual learns what not to do or to believe[.]"

"Stability predicted almost all of its behavioral correlates negatively, whereas Plasticity predicted almost all of its behavioral correlates positively."

"Plasticity was positively associated with exploratory behaviors such as attending public lectures and telling jokes. (One might not intuitively think of telling jokes as a form of exploration, but consider that telling jokes is usually designed to pursue some form of social reward, and the outcome is uncertain."

"In many situations, only minor mismatches occur, and the questions of what is happening and what should be done may be answered with relative ease; interpretations can be adjusted and alternative strategies deployed without calling major goals or interpretive structures into question. Occasionally, however, sufficiently dramatic mismatches occur that one must abandon interpretations, strategies, and goals that have been stable enough to be considered characteristic adaptations."

"the individual has encountered sufficient anomaly to destabilize the cybernetic system and to invalidate one or more characteristic adaptations. Such an event can plunge the individual into chaos, which is equivalent to a sharp increase in psychological entropy and is accompanied by some amount of emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral dysregulation. (The larger the span of time and the amount of cognition and behavior that a particular characteristic adaptation organizes, the more psychological entropy is released when it is invalidated, and the worse the ensuing dysregulation.) At this juncture, the personality system has, to some degree, disintegrated, in the literal sense of losing integration. Its characteristic adaptations are no longer providing coherent, non-conflicting answers to the questions of what is happening and what should be done. ... New characteristic adaptations must be generated ... Once exploration has led to suitable new adaptations, the personality system will be reintegrated, emotional dysregulation will subside, and the individual will have emerged from chaos with a reconfigured personality. If the episode of disintegration was particularly severe, successful adaptation may constitute posttraumatic growth (Jayawickreme & Blackie, in press)."

"Such changes allow people to become better adapted to their life circumstances over time. They also tend to encourage alignment between traits and characteristic adaptations, as individuals adapt not only to their external circumstances, but also to their own proclivities. Any adaptation is less likely to lead to increased psychological entropy, and thus more likely to be retained over time, if it is consistent with the general functional tendencies associated with the individual’s traits."

"For people very low in Stability, even seemingly minor anomalies may plunge them into chaos, dysregulating their goal-directed functioning and leaving them distressed and at a loss."

"Low Stability appears to cause difficulty in developing and maintaining effective characteristic adaptations, presumably due to frequent disruption. In the language of dynamical systems, people low in Stability have trouble forming characteristic adaptations that are strong attractors (Nowak et al., 2005). High Stability, in contrast, is associated with having characteristic adaptations that are strong attractors and offer effective protection from unwilling encounters with chaos and the unpleasant dysregulation that comes with such encounters."

"heightened exploratory tendency will cause engagement with novel and potentially rewarding possibilities (DeYoung, 2010c)."

"When asked to describe memorable life events, people high in Plasticity tended to describe episodes of exploration (Wilt et al., 2011). Because exploration can create new characteristic adaptations even in the absence of a crisis of instability (in which old characteristic adaptations are eliminated and replaced), people high in Plasticity will tend to have larger behavioral repertoires than those low in Plasticity[.]"

Montag, 30. März 2020

Repetitive consumption of selected bits of information:

I truly love certain pieces of information. I can reread them several hundred times. At least it feels that way.

Taking Breaks:

Nicholas Carr:

"Not all distractions are bad. As most of us know from experience, if we concentrate too intensively on a tough problem, we can get stuck in a mental rut. Our thinking narrows, and we struggle vainly to come up with new ideas. But if we let the problem sit unattended for a time - if we 'sleep on it' - we often return to it with a fresh perspective and a burst of creativity. Research by Ap Dijksterhuis, a Dutch psychologist who heads the Unconscious Lab at Radboud University in Nijmegen, indicates that such breaks in our attention give our unconscious mind time to grapple with a problem, bringing to bear information and cognitive processes unavailable to conscious deliberation. We usually make better decisions, his experiments reveal, if we shift our attention away from a difficult mental challenge for a time."

Unstructured Time:

Mark Manson:

"I often conceptualize my career into two types of work: creative work and procedural work."

"The two types of work have different characteristics. Procedural work gains from structure, scheduling, planning, and requires consistent execution. Creative work is unpredictable and unstructured. In fact, the more you try to plan out creative work, often the worse results you get. This is why every artist is insanely productive right up until the moment that they’re given a deadline. For years, when people ask me what I do for inspiration, I always tell them that there’s no such thing as inspiration, just a lack of distraction."

Benefits of Learning Hard Things:

"Talking with comedian Bryan Callen, Rogan noted the following:

>When you put yourself in a situation where you really suck at something, it’s really good for you, it’s good to suck at things and try to get better at them…when you learn how to do something you suck at it first, you have to concentrate at getting better, that thing of getting better translates to other aspects of your life…if you can get good at learning how to play the piano you can get good at archery…there’s a thing in there of learning how to learn.<

... There’s something incredibly valuable in the deeply frustrating yet rewarding pursuit of mastering something hard.  ... spending time to learn the piano, or archery, or chess, or hobby electronics can be more than a high quality alternative to the numbing blandness of passive information consumption, it can also make it easier later when you decide at work you need to master a complex new mathematical model or supply chain system.

There is, of course, also a psychological benefit to learning and then practicing a skilled craft, especially during otherwise chaotic times. As Rogan notes earlier in the interview: >you focus, then you execute, and if you do it properly, there’s a meditative aspect to it.< "


Die Kontakt- und Beziehungsfähigkeit der Partner trägt eine Beziehung;

Das Thema >Persönlichkeitsstörungen< ist in diesem Zusammenhang relevant, da sich Persönlichkeitsstörungen über eine verminderte Beziehungsfähigkeit bemerkbar machen.



Erlebnis des "In-Beziehung-Seins" (eine Art Geborgenheitserlebnis);

Sonntag, 29. März 2020

Blogs and Social Media:

"One of the properties that made blogging so exciting is that it bypassed the gatekeepers guarding traditional media outlets. Anyone could start a blog. Everyone had access to the same global audience.

As the vast majority of bloggers during the golden age discovered, however, the “gatekeepers” weren’t the only thing standing between them and a rapt audience. It turns out that it’s really hard to engage peoples’ attention, even once you have access to it. ...

Part of the underappreciated brilliance of early social media is that it presented an entirely novel solution to this problem. Networks like Facebook offered its users what can best be understand as a semi-collectivist model of attention. Users could post whatever they wanted. By an unspoken social contract, they would pay some attention to the posts of their close neighbors in the network social graph (regardless of the quality of this content), and these neighbors would do the same. The result: everyone could almost immediately begin receiving attention from an audience — a deeply appealing promise that through most of modern history had been available only to relatively small number of professions (writers, preachers, media personalities, teachers)."

Cybernetic Big Five Theory - Auszüge - Teil4 - "Neuroticism", "Openness/Intellect", "Conscientiousness", "Agreeableness":

Colin DeYoung [siehe auch: Teil5]:

[Kernthema: Erläuterungen zu den übrigen "Big Five Traits"; Auszüge, die mir beim Lesen besonders interessant oder relevant erschienen; Nach den Auszügen (voraussichtlich noch zwei weitere Teile) wird eine freie und persönliche Zusammenfassung des wesentlichen Inhalts dieses Artikels gepostet.]


"Whereas Extraversion is most obviously related to the beginning of the cybernetic cycle, Neuroticism is most obviously related to its end, goal comparison, when the current state is compared to the desired state[.]"

"mismatch may mean that a serious problem exists, or even that one is in danger, because the failure to predict an outcome may indicate that the present situation is not sufficiently well understood to be confident in its safety (Peterson, 1999). One innate response to mismatch, therefore, is the activation of defensive systems."

"From the cybernetic perspective, punishments are any stimuli that signal definite inability to attain a goal, whereas threats, or cues of punishment, signal a decrease in the probability of attaining a goal."

"In a cybernetic system, entropy reflects uncertainty regarding the system’s capacity to move toward its goals (Wiener, 1961)."

"the harder it is to answer the questions, ‘‘What is happening?’’ and ‘‘What should I do?’’ the higher the level of psychological entropy."

"People high in Neuroticism tend to experience negative emotion in response to frequent perceptions that they are not in the state they would like to be in."

"In depression, the goal is perceived to be unattainable and approach motivation is extinguished (Carver & Scheier, 1998). (Clinical depression represents a state in which this extinction of behavior has been overgeneralized, extinguishing a maladaptively large range of behaviors.) Withdrawal describes the tendency toward both anxiety and depression. ‘‘Withdrawal’’ is a potentially misleading label because it does not refer to social withdrawal specifically, but rather to the automatic withdrawal of motivation, either partially or completely, from particular strategies or goals, in response to uncertainty."


"Openness/Intellect describes individual differences in cognitive exploration, the tendency to seek, detect, appreciate, understand, and utilize both sensory and abstract information (DeYoung, 2014; DeYoung et al., 2012)."

"People high in Openness/Intellect have more complex and extensive interpretations of the world than people low in the trait, and they are therefore likely to use more creative and innovative strategies to pursue their goals (DeYoung, 2010c)."

"Measures of motivation and ability may be difficult to separate cleanly because (1) high ability is likely to lead to increased motivation and low ability to decreased motivation, and (2) strong motivation may lead to the development of greater ability through practice and learning."

"Imagining possibilities appears to be a default activity for all human beings, yet striking individual differences exist in the complexity with which people engage in exploring the world perceptually, abstractly, and imaginatively, and these differences are captured by Openness/Intellect, which has been found to predict individual differences in the functioning of the default network (Adelstein et al., 2011)."

"Intellect reflects intellectual engagement with abstract and semantic information, whereas Openness to Experience reflects engagement with sensory and perceptual information and thus involves aesthetic interests and fantasy proneness (DeYoung et al., 2012)."


"CB5T posits that Conscientiousness reflects variation in the mechanisms that allow people to follow rules and prioritize non-immediate goals. As a species, human beings are highly unusual both in their ability to follow explicit rules and in their ability to plan for the distant future, adapting their behavior to goals that will not be obtained for weeks, months, or even years (DeYoung, 2010a)."

"Conscientiousness appears to be relatively specific to the problem of governing behavior across long time spans or according to the relatively arbitrary explicit rules that are a function of the complexity of human cultures."

"Conscientiousness has been extensively characterized in terms of its consequences for various life outcomes. It is typically the best predictor, after intelligence, of both academic and occupational success, and it is also a good predictor of health and longevity, apparently because it predicts avoidance of risky behaviors and engagement in preventive health behaviors (Noftle & Robins, 2007; Ozer & Benet-Martinez, 2006; Roberts, Lejuez, Krueger, Richards, & Hill, 2012). In contrast, however, Conscientiousness may be the least well understood, mechanistically, of any of the Big Five."

"Conscientiousness may be particularly involved in reorienting attention away from distractions and back to stimuli most relevant to important goals (Fox, Corbetta, Snyder, Vincent, & Raichle, 2006)."

"Conscientiousness is most obviously related to the first three stages of the cybernetic cycle. Higher Industriousness should be associated with the likelihood of activating long-term rather than short-term goals, as well as selecting more effective strategies for meeting those goals, and then resisting distraction while carrying out action. Orderliness should be associated with the likelihood of activating goals and selecting strategies that conform to rules. Additionally, however, one would expect the process of goal comparison to differ with Conscientiousness such that those high in the trait should be more likely to generate an error signal based on inadequate progress toward a long-term or rule-based goal."


"Agreeableness, represents the general tendency toward cooperation and altruism, as opposed to exploitation and lack of concern for others. Whereas the other four Big Five traits are posited to reflect cybernetic mechanisms involved in the pursuit of goals in general, Agreeableness reflects variation in a set of mechanisms that exist because human beings are social animals whose survival depends on coordinating their goals, strategies, and interpretations with those of others (Graziano & Tobin, 2013; Van Egeren, 2009)."

"In principle, some goals might be pursued successfully without consideration of the needs and desires of others, and there is certainly variation in the extent to which people need to be cooperative and altruistic while successfully achieving their own goals. Nonetheless, given the social nature of human existence, some degree of cooperation is necessary, both in development and in most of adult life, and CB5T asserts that all normally functioning human beings have at least some capacity to cooperate with others. Hence, Agreeableness is no less functionally important for human beings than the other Big Five traits."

"CB5T suggests that the social behaviors associated with Assertiveness and Enthusiasm are driven by reward processes also involved in non-social reward motivation, whereas Compassion and Politeness are driven by dedicated affiliative bonding and social regulation systems."


Hans Hass, Wir Menschen:

"Wir müssen eine Handlung nicht unbedingt ausführen, um herauszufinden, ob sie taugt oder nicht. Wir können sie - innerhalb unseres Gehirns - 'theoretisch' erkunden."

"[Hierdurch] können [wir] in der uns gegebenen Lebensspanne sicherlich ein Tausendfaches (wenn nicht Millionenfaches) von dem ausführen, erreichen, entdecken, erschließen, was uns normalerweise in dieser Zeitspanne möglich wäre."

Cybernetic Big Five Theory - Auszüge - Teil3 - "Extraversion":

Colin DeYoung [siehe auch: Teil4]:

[Kernthema: Extraversion als Sensitivität für Belohnungen; Ich empfehle Lesern hier insbesondere die Ausführungen im Original zu lesen, obwohl weit weniger Absätze weggelassen wurden als bei den vorhergehenden Teilen. Persönlich fand ich diese Ausführungen interessanter als die grundlegenderen Überlegungen von Colin DeYoung (die in den vorherigen Teilen Erwähung fanden), darum blieb hier wesentlich mehr Text "übrig" als bei den vorhergehenden Teilen.]

"Extraversion is the trait most obviously related to the first stage of the cybernetic cycle, goal activation, in which a goal becomes sufficiently motivating to govern subsequent information processing and behavior. The degree to which the current situation affords possibilities for pursuing or attaining desired goals is the degree to which it contains cues for reward. From the cybernetic perspective, rewards are any stimuli that indicate progress toward or attainment of a goal, and every cybernetic system must have the ability to respond to such stimuli."

"The brain contains a complex system for keeping track of the reward value of stimuli and for motivating behavior designed to move toward goals, and some parts of this system are involved in response to every reward. Variations in this system, therefore, are likely to influence a wide range of behaviors in response to reward. CB5T posits that Extraversion stems from variation in parameters of the mechanisms designed to respond to rewards. All other things being equal, Extraversion will predict who is more motivated by the possibility of attaining a given reward and who gets more enjoyment out of a reward when attained. The theory that Extraversion reflects reward sensitivity is reasonably well supported (Depue & Collins, 1999; Smillie, 2013). A number of the traits that fall within Extraversion, including drive, the tendency to experience positive emotions like joy, and excitement seeking, are clearly conceptually linked to reward sensitivity."

"A variety of neurobiological evidence supports the link between Extraversion and the brain’s reward systems. Several studies have found Extraversion to moderate the effects of pharmacological manipulation of dopamine, and dopamine is strongly implicated in reward sensitivity in both human and non-human research (DeYoung, 2013)."

"the evidence supporting the fundamental link between Extraversion and reward sensitivity is considerable. What has been less well studied is the relation of Extraversion to two distinct classes of reward: (1) incentive or appetitive rewards, also called cues of reward or promises, which indicate an increase in the probability of achieving a goal, and (2) consummatory or hedonic rewards, which represent the actual attainment of a goal. Berridge (2007) has described the responses to these two classes of reward as wanting and liking respectively, and CB5T hypothesizes that the two major subfactors or aspects of Extraversion, Assertiveness and Enthusiasm, derive from this distinction (DeYoung, 2010b, 2013). Assertiveness, reflecting the tendency toward drive, social status, and leadership, is a reflection of wanting—that is, motivation to attain desired goals. Enthusiasm, reflecting the tendency toward gregarious social interaction and positive emotions, reflects wanting to some extent but is primarily a reflection of liking, the enjoyment experienced on receiving or imagining a reward. Some evidence for this distinction comes from personality neuroscience, in which Assertiveness (also called Agentic Extraversion) is more closely related than Enthusiasm to dopamine, the major neurotransmitter for incentive reward, whereas an excellent marker of Enthusiasm (Social Closeness) has been linked to endogenous opiates, the major neurotransmitters for hedonic reward (Depue & Collins, 1999; Depue & Morrone-Strupinsky, 2005; DeYoung, 2013; Wacker, Mueller, Hennig, & Stemmler, 2012)."

"It would be tidy if Assertiveness purely reflected wanting and Enthusiasm purely reflected liking, but this does not seem to be the case. … both Assertiveness and Enthusiasm predicted high levels of aroused positive affect (e.g., feeling ‘‘energetic’’ and ‘‘active’’)[.]"

"Enthusiasm, which reflects individual differences in response to attaining reward, encompasses individual differences in desire as well as enjoyment."

"a crucial function of enjoyment of any reward is to make it memorable and motivate desire and pursuit of similar rewards in future."

"People who like things more intensely are more likely to want them intensely and to pursue them assertively."

"Subgoal attainment is often an indicator of the speed of progress toward a superordinate goal; thus, the positive affect experienced after achieving a subgoal tracks progress toward the relevant superordinate goal[.]"

"activity level is a facet of Extraversion, falling primarily under Assertiveness (DeYoung et al., 2007). Part of the general cybernetic response to most cues of reward is to increase motivation for action[.]"

"Extraversion is a strongly social trait because many human rewards are social (and the human reward system has undoubtedly evolved to be particularly responsive to social rewards), but also that Extraversion is not exclusively social and applies to all rewards (with the possible exception of the reward value of information, which is posited to be associated with Openness/Intellect; see ... DeYoung, 2013). CB5T does suggest, however, that the label ‘‘Detachment’’ may be more accurately descriptive of low Extraversion than is ‘‘Introversion’’ (Krueger & Markon, 2014). People who score low in Extraversion are not necessarily turned inward; rather, they are less engaged, motivated, and energized by the possibilities for reward that surround them."

Cybernetic Big Five Theory - Auszüge - Teil2:

Colin DeYoung [siehe auch: Teil3]:

[Kernthemen: Was sind "characteristic adaptations"? In welcher Beziehung stehen sie zu dem Trait-Konzept? Wie lassen sie sich "messen"? Etc.]

Characteristic adaptations are relative stable goals, interpretations, and strategies[.] In contrast to traits, relatively few researchers have worked to define characteristic adaptations[.]

In CB5T, characteristic adaptations are influenced by traits, but they are sperate entities in their own right, generated by cybernetic processes of exploration and adaptation[.] 

Goals are defined broadly as representations of a desired future state[.] … Like traits, many goals and other characteristic adaptations can be considered as attractor states[.] … Different goals are active at different time, as the cybernetic system shifts among mutiple attractor states[.] … Some goals are strong attractors and are capable of organizing and governing motivation for extended periods of time, despite potential disruptors, whereas others are relatively weak attractors, readily disrupted and displaced by other goals, even if they are characteristic in the sense that they are held in memory over long periods of time. 

Our brains interpret the world primarily as a forum for action and only secondarily as a realm of facts, and our interpretations are shaped, more than most people are likely to realize, by relevance to our goals[.] Nonetheless, we have evolved to detect and remember a great many facts (with ‘facts’ meant broadly as any kind of nonevaluative information about the state of the world) that may be irrelevant to our goals, presumably because our goals and strategies are so complex and changeable that phenomena that seem irrelevant at present may well prove relevant to our goals in future[.] 

Strategies are plans, actions, skills, and automatized routines that are used to transform the current state into the desired future state. 

Goals, interpretations, and strategies represent the information used by the cybernetic system to function in any situation, and they always reflect the manner in which the individual has adapted to that situation[.] … not all adaptations are characteristic. To be considered ‘characteristic,’ the adaptation must have anough stability to be a useful descriptor of the person for some reasonable length of time[.] 

Characteristic adapdations are, by definition, reactions to particular life circumstances, whereas traits need not be. 

Traits have been studied extensively as such, whereas characteristic adaptations have been studied under many different names. 

Some examples may help to illustrate the difference between traits and characteristic adaptations: Being argumentative is a trait; being a trial lawyer is a characteristic adaptation. Liking to frolic with friends is a trait; belonging to a fraternity is a characteristic adaptation. 

Given the possibility of assessing traits using characteristic adaptations, one might wonder whether it is ever possible to assess characteristic adaptations by questionnaire. The answer is decidingly yes. What must be done is to focus the items on a particular adaptation, in all its cultural and personality specificity. An example used above was the quality of one’s attachment to one’s current partner. Attachment questionnaires that frame all of their items in relation to a single relationship with a particular individual are validly assessing a characteristic adaptation, regardless of whether that characteristic adaptation has been influenced by a trait reflecting typical attachment style. 

One of the most thorough methods for assessing characteristic adaptations is Little’s (1983, 2006) personal projects analysis, which asks people to generate their own list of personal projects - ‘activities and concerns … that we think about, plan for, carry out, and sometimes (though not always) complete’[.]

Cybernetic Big Five Theory - Auszüge - Teil1:

Colin DeYoung [siehe auch: Teil2]:

[Kernthemen: Enführung ins Thema; Relevanz kybernetischer Betrachtungsweisen für die Persönlichkeitsforschung; Worum geht es einem 'kybernetischen System'? Wie sehen kybernetische Regelkreise aus? Das Trait-Konzept;]

The fundamental premise of CB5T is that any adequate theory of personality must be based on cybernetics, the study of goal-directed, self-regulating systems[.] 

Cybernetic systems are characterized by their inclusion of one or more goals or reference values, which guide the work carried out by the system. 

All cybernetic systems receive feedback, through some kind of sensory mechanism, indicating the degree to which they are moving towards their goals. … they are adaptive and adjust their behavior, based on feedback, to pursue their goals. 

Gray referred to subcortical structures known as the limbic system and basal ganglia as ‘a mechanism for the attainment of goals.‘ The cybernetic architecture has been extremely well preserved by evolution because it provides the general behavioral control system that allows organisms to adjust their behaviors to their situation from moment to moment to accomplish their goals and, hence, to survive and reproduce. 

The operation of cybernetic systems can be characterized by a cycle with five stages: … In the first stage, one of the person’s goals is activated and guides the rest of the upcoming cycle. In the second, decision making takes place to select an appropriate action to move toward the goal. In the third, the action is carried out. In the fourth, the consequences of that action are interpreted; … Finally, the current state is compared to the goal to detect any mismatch. If the current state and the goal match, then that goal has been accomplished and a new goal will emerge to guide the next iteration of the cycle. If a mismatch is detected, however, the cycle will begin again with the same goal in place, and another action will be selected in order to attempt to move toward the goal (or … the goal will be abandoned). This cycle is a useful schematic, but it is misleading in one crucial way … : Most of the five stages describe processes that are carried out simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. … people are almost constantly interpreting feedback about the world from their sensory systems, and they are almost constantly comparing what is perceived to what is predicted or desired in order to detect mismatches, before and during action, as well as afterward. 

traits are probabilistic, and even an error-free measure of them could not perfectly predict behavior at any particular moment. Nonetheless, they may provide substantial predictive power for behavior in aggregate and are better than nothing for predicting even singular instances of behavior[.] 

Traits, therefore, vary in their relevance across situations, and, in situations where people are minimally exposed to some trait-relevant class of stimuli, individual differences in the corresponding trait will not be apparent[.] 

the term ‘personality traits’ is not synonymous with ‘the Big Five.’ There are a great many personality traits, and the Big Five merely represent the major dimensions of covariation among them. 

CB5T recognizes (1) that most traits can be categorized either as a facet of one of the Big Fice or as a compound trait reflecting a blend of two or more of the various traits at all levels …, and (2) that any successful explanatory theory of personality must account for the existence of the Big Five as the major dimensions of covariation in personality. 

Though typically estimated at around 40-60% in self-ratings of adults, the heritability of the Big Five is in the range of 60-80% when assessed with multiple raters[.]
Daniel Levitin:

"the mind-wandering mode and the central executive work in opposition and are mutually exclusive states;"


Richard D. Alexander, The Biology of Moral Systems;

"To the extent that males and females (of any species) commit themselves to lifetime monogamy, the interests of two individuals in a pair approach being identical. This point is often confused by biologists and social scientists alike (e.g., Dawkins, 1976, and Sahlins, 1976, both thought that unrelated spouses necessarily disagree more than relatives)."

Conscientiousness, Self-Control, Willpower:

Das Messen des Ausprägungsgrades der Fähigkeit zur Selbststeuerung;


Wozu Beziehungen / Freundschaften?

Wozu braucht es den tieferen Kontakt zum Mitmenschen?

Samstag, 28. März 2020

Tempo der Auffassung:

Z.B.: Wie rasch neue Konzepte erfasst werden;

Ein Schnelllerner in dem Sinn, ist eine Person, die sich rasch ein Konzeptverständnis erwerben kann;


Die tagtägliche Verantwortung, Verhalten zu generieren und hervorzubringen;


Intuitiv wird, z.B. im Rechtsempfinden, davon ausgegangen, dass der Mensch, im Vergleich zu anderen Tieren, weit weniger durch äußere Umstände in seinem Verhalten festgelegt ist. D.h. es findet sich hier eine größere Entkopplung des Verhaltens von einem bloßen Reagieren auf äußere Umstände / mehr Freiheit bei der Hervorbringung / mehr Freiheit beim Generieren von Verhalten.

Das Merken:

Etwas Wählerisches, das manche Eindrücke festhält;

[Siehe auch: Remembering Names]


"Time alone with your thoughts is necessary: it refreshes your mind and enables insights. Too much time alone, however, quickly becomes 'insupportable.' "

Freitag, 27. März 2020


Die Suche nach Lesestoff:

Wo versteckt es sich, das richtig, richtig gute Zeug?


Welche Bücher sind es, die man öfters zur Hand nimmt / öfters zur Hand nehmen kann?


Man kann sich ja selber fragen: Wann und Wo ereignen sich die eigentlich wesentlichen Stunden?

Vor Büchern? In der Natur? Beim Spazieren gehen? Beim Wandern? Mit Mitmenschen? Mit Familie? In der Arbeit? In Urlauben? Beim Durchforsten des Internets? An langen Abenden? Beim Musizieren? Beim Anhören von Musik? ...

The basis for the concept of free will:

Richard D. Alexander:

"I believe that it is our ability to visualize alternatives, particularly in connection with social interactions, that represents the basis for the concept of free will. We see points of decision ahead of us ..."


Man sieht Alternativen vor sich, und letztlich auch Alternativen (die man nicht wahrgenommen hat) hinter sich.


Das bewusste Hinstreben auf Langzeit- oder Fernziele, verleiht dem Menschenleben eine recht eigene Qualität, die es von dem Leben anderer Tiere abhebt oder entfernt.

Disgust as a Mechanism for Decision Making Under Risk


Extending the risk framework from pathogen disgust to sexual and moral disgust 

Other forms of disgust do not demonstrate an input-output logic consistent with a pathogen-avoidance function. For example, people often report feeling disgusted by incest or violent aggression, despite there being no clear connection between such behavior and pathogen harm. Natural selection generally proceeds by modifying existing traits to serve new ultimate functions. In some cases, the old trait is entirely transformed into the new trait; for example, the terrestrial quadruped’s forelimbs were transformed into the bat’s wings. In other cases, in what is termed serial homology, an existing trait is duplicated and the duplicate is modified, such that the organism possesses both the older, ancestral trait and the newer, derived trait; for example, the snake’s fangs are modified duplicates of its other teeth. It appears that some emotions constitute serial homologies, i.e., the functional features of one form of the emotion afforded repurposing to serve other ultimate functions even as the original form was retained. Pathogen disgust motivates avoidance and diminishes appetitive drive, features that made it well suited for repurposing to guide the individual away from other types of hazard. Hence, disgust responses to sexual stimuli or moral violators can be understood as serial homologues of pathogen disgust, duplicates in which the eliciting conditions have been importantly altered, and which operate in parallel with the original pathogen-avoidance functions of disgust (Clark, 2010). Importantly, like pathogen disgust, these subsidiary forms operate in domains in which costs and benefit tradeoffs must be regulated. Correspondingly, considerations of decision-making under risk continue to apply in these areas as well.


Moral disgust motivates avoiding those who violate social norms, perhaps protecting the morally-disgusted individual from direct harm by the violator and/or from stigma-by-association (Neuberg et al. 1994) and higher-order punishment (punishment meted out to those who fail to punish norm violators – Kelly 2011; Clark & Fessler 2014). Whenever this cost mitigation also sacrifices benefits, such as from cooperation with norm violators, moral disgust too can be seen as a riskavoidance strategy."

On Walking:

“When I talk about my purposefully disconnected life, a common retort is that I’m missing out on the creative possibilities born of the frequent exposure to new people and ideas delivered through social media and related technologies.

But here’s the thing, for the most part, this is not how high-level creative work is accomplished. It’s not, in other words, lack of input that stymies creative breakthroughs.

What does stands in the way of creative breakthroughs — I’m increasingly convinced — is lack of time spent walking quietly with your thoughts, working and re-working your understanding of a concept in search of new layers of meaning.”

"I still really believe in the idea of quiet creativity. Gathering inputs is the easy part. It’s the long thinking, and rethinking, then thinking again that’s really needed if you want to produce industrial strength insights."

Das Auffinden:


Das innere Erleben detektiert Wert;

Das Denken detektiert und verwertet Regelmäßigkeit und Festgelegtheit;


Arbeitsamkeit (Conscientiousness / Industriousness) und Begabung (insbesondere kognitive Begabung / Intelligenz) - zwei wesentliche Faktoren, die Wohlstand herbeiführen;

Donnerstag, 26. März 2020


Es wird schon eine Art "Kampfeslust" existieren, d.h. eine Art Freude, den Gegner zu treffen oder Schaden zuzufügen.

Z.B. im Schachspiel, beim Fußballspielen, aber auch jenseits des Sports bei Rangkämpfen, etc.


Schreiben "mit Idee" versus Schreiben "ohne Idee";


"Mit Idee":

Schreiben, das vom inneren Erlebnis eines Sachverhalts heraus gestützt und getragen wird;


Das Kommen einer "Idee":

Der Moment, in dem wir zur subjektiven Klarheit hinfinden, wie sich eine Sache verhält bzw. wie sich die Sache verhalten könnte;


Stunden, die man beliebig verbringen kann;

In der Freizeit kann ein reiches Eigenleben einsetzen, wenn die "Lustfalle" erfolgreich umgangen wird.

Mittwoch, 25. März 2020


Langeweile ist ein "guter Freund", oder kann ein "guter Freund" sein, da sie uns im Idealfall darauf hinweist, wenn Zeit verschwendet wird.


Z.B. Bilder, die wir, aus einem nicht klar feststellbaren Grund heraus, immer wieder anschauen können: Wieder und wieder und wieder.

Oder z.B. Geschriebenes, das wir, aus einem nicht klar feststellbaren Grund heraus, immer wieder lesen können.


Ellen Winner:

>The domain of art is value-laden. We cannot look at a work of art without wondering if we like it or if it is "good."<


Wann und Wo sich eigentlich wesentliche Stunden ereignen, im eigenen Leben;

Supernormal Stimuli:

Deirdre Barrett:

"Amimal biology developed a concept that is crucial to understanding the problems instincts create when disconnected from their natural environment - that of the supernormal stimulus. Nobel laureate Niko Tinbergen coined this term after his animal research revealed that experimenters could create phony targets that appealed to instincts more than the original objects for which they'd evolved. ... The essence of the supernormal stimulus is that the exaggerated imitation can exert a stronger pull than the real thing."

Kreative Prozesse:

Gerhard Roth:

"Zweifellos sind kreative Prozesse keine rein intracortikalen Vorgänge, sondern sind sehr stark von subcorticalen limbischen Vorgängen beeinflusst, und zwar mehr als bei einer reinen Intelligenzleistung. Hierfür spricht die Tatsache, dass das limbische System nicht nur die Ausschüttung von Neuromodulatoren im Cortex (und besonders im präfrontalen Cortex) kontrolliert, sondern auch die Aktivität des Nucleus reticularis thalami überwacht. Dies könnte erklären, warum Kreativität mehr als Intelligenz von Intuition lebt. D.h. viele kreative Lösungen werden ganz offenbar unbewusst vorbereitet."

Wissenschaft und Kunst:





"Originalität, d.h. die Fähigkeit, sich selbst etwas einfallen zu lassen, was über die Aufnahme des Dargebotenen hinausgeht"


Intelligence - A New Look, Hans J. Eysenck:

"Some people (the plodders) require to look at all or most of the cues; your intuitive person takes a leap at the solution after only receiving a few cues."


Genius - Hans J. Eysenck:

"To link intuition with exactitude, correctness, precision or truth would be a mistake; intuition can be as wrong, treacherous, mistaken and erroneous as logical thinking; it is no guarantee of truth. The adjective 'intuitive' refers to the method of arriving at a conclusion; not any property of the conclusion itself. Intuition is the basis of the 'aha!' experience, but how many 'ahas' have had to be retracted?"

Loss of courtship behavior:

Sexual signal loss, pleiotropy, and maintenance of a male reproductive polymorphism in crickets
Justa L. Heinen‐Kay, Rachel E. Nichols, Marlene Zuk

"In Pacific field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) on Kauai, Hawaii, a mutation (flatwing) that segregates as a single locus is responsible for the rapid loss of song production in males. We used outbred cricket colonies fixed for male wing morph to investigate whether homozygous flatwing and normal‐wing (wild‐type) females differ in responsiveness to male calling song and propensity to mate when paired with either a flatwing or normal‐wing male in the presence or absence of courtship song. Flatwing females were less likely to mount a male than normal‐wing females. Females of both genotypes showed a preference for normal‐wing males and were more likely to mate in the presence of courtship song; normal‐wing females were particularly likely to mate with song. Our results show that negative pleiotropy between obligate male silence and female mating behavior can constrain the evolution of sexual signal loss and contribute to the maintenance of a male reproductive polymorphism in the wild."

Intuition als Ahnung:

Gerhard Roth:

„Es handelt sich um eine Art von Einsicht, die nicht dem schrittweise vorgehenden gedanklich-sprachlichen Abhandeln von Dingen und Argumenten beruht, sondern auf einer ‚Ahnung’, eben einer Intuition, eine bestimmte Entscheidung oder Problemlösung sei die richtige, ohne dass wir dies genau artikulieren können.“

Intuition als Ahnung:


Tiefe eines Einfalls:

Die Idee, dass manche Einfälle aus den tieferen Schichten der "Persönlichkeit" stammen;

Montag, 23. März 2020


Projekte, denen wir über Monate oder Jahre hinweg tagtäglich Zeitspannen widmen wollen oder können, verleihen dem Leben recht eigentlich erst Tiefgang.


Fernziele machen das Leben interessant / schenken dem Leben Tiefgang.

Von der Planlosigkeit:

Es fühlt sich angenehm an, einfach irgendetwas zu tun. Besser nichts tun, und in den Zeiten, in denen man handelt, mit Plan handeln.

Das Detektieren von Ordnung und Festgelegtheit:

Um uns zurecht finden zu können, in dieser Welt, müssen wir Ordnung und Festgelegtheit detektieren. Es können sich zwei Fehler ereignen: Zum Einen können wir Ordnung und Festgelegtheit da vermuten, wo Offenheit vorliegt. Zum anderen können wir Offenheit und Nichtfestgelegtheit  dort vermuten, wo Ordnung und Festgelegtheit vorliegen.


Peter Fiedler:

"Mehr noch als die diagnostische Feststellung bei anderen psychischen Störungen (wie bei einer Phobie, Depression oder Schizophrenie) werden durch die Diagnose einer Persönlichkeitsstörung nicht nur einzelne Verhaltens- und Erlebnisepisoden als >störend< bezeichnet. Eine diagnostizierte Persönlichkeitsabweichung bezieht sich immer auf die Person als Ganzes - eben als eine Verallgemeinerung über konkretes Verhalten hinaus."


"Das Phänomen, dass die den Persönlichkeitsstörungen zugeschriebenen Devianzmuster aus der Eigenperspektive zunächst eher selten als störend, abweichend oder normverletzend erlebt werden und dass sie deshalb als solche bei sich selbst nur schwer als Persönlichkeitsstörungen diagnostizierbar sind, bezeichnet man als >Ich-Synthonie< der Persönlichkeitsstörungen."

"Persönlichkeitsbedingte Interaktionsprobleme werden den Betroffenen selbst also vielfach erst durch Kritik und Rückmeldung anderer transparent. Nicht in jedem Fall werden die Betroffenen akzeptieren, dass die kritisierten Verhaltensmuster unangemessen sind, Regelverstöße darstellen oder Änderungswert besitzen."


"Persönlichkeitsstörungen [werden als] ich-synton erlebt. Mit ich-synton bezeichnen Psychiater Dinge, die Menschen als 'zu sich selbst gehörend' empfinden. Das bedeutet, die Betroffenen haben nicht den Eindruck, dass etwas mit ihnen nicht stimmt, dass sie krank sein könnten ..."

"Menschen mit Persönlichkeitsstörungen [erleben sich] meistens nicht als krank und [können nicht] erkennen, welchen eigenen Anteil sie am Zustandekommen all ihrer Schwierigkeiten haben."

"Man weiß ... nicht genau, wie viele Menschen im Laufe ihres Lebens an einer Persönlichkeitsstörung erkranken, aber jedes Jahr sind in Deutschlanf etwa 10 Prozent der Bevölkerung davon betroffen."

[Siehe auch: Persönlichkeitsstörungen]

Sonntag, 22. März 2020



Was, wenn einem / wenn manchen bzw. den meisten Personen nur einige Stunden je Monat ein durch und durch "sinnvolles" / ein geradezu "perfektes" Verhalten gelingt?
"Initially, Kevin [Simler] took the startup scene for a straightforward exercise in company-building: gather some people together; give them time to think, talk, and write code; and eventually, like Legos clicking into place, out pops useful software. Then he read Hierarchy in the Forest by anthropologist Christopher Boehm, a book that analyzes human societies with the same concepts used to analyze chimpanzee communities. After reading Boehm's book, Kevin began to see his environment very differently. An office full of software engineers soon morphed, under the flickering fluorescent lights, into a bribe of chattering primates."


Robin Hanson:

"Another way to think about prestige is that it's your 'price' on the market for friendship and association (just as sexual attractiveness is your 'price' on the mating market). As in all markets, price is driven by supply and demand. We all have a similar (and highly limited) supply of friendship to offer to others, but the demand of our friendship varies greatly from person to person. Highly prestigious individuals have many claims on their time and attention, many would-be friends lining up at their door. Less prestigious individuals, meanwhile, have fewer claims on their time and attention, and must therefore offer their friendship at a discount. And everyone, with an eye to raising their price, strive to make themselves more attractive as a friend or associate - by learning new skills, acquiring more and better tools, and polishing their charms."


Z.B.: Denken als ein Suchen nach, Auffinden von, und Verwerten von "Wenn-Dann-Regeln";



Eine Ressource, die täglich nachwächst;

Samstag, 21. März 2020


David J. Hand:

>When I was young I was very impressed by how food producers could fill jars with whole walnuts. Somehow they could crack the shells while leaving the nuts intact. Most of the times I tried it, I ended up with mixed pieces of shell and nut, managing to get the nut out whole only once every ten times or so. Later, however, I learned that although the manufacturers had a better success rate than I did, they often ended up with mixed shell and nut pieces, too. But I also learned that they did something else: they selected their results. On those occasions when they were successful, they’d take the whole nuts and stick them in a jar labeled “Whole Walnuts.” And on the other occasions, they’d separate the nut pieces from the shell and stick them in a jar labeled “Walnut Pieces.” (They also had a way of softening the shells so it was easier to get the nut out whole, but I won’t let that get in the way of a good story.) The point here is that I wasn’t seeing the entire picture. I’d assumed that the “whole walnut” jars were the results of all of their efforts, rather than of just a selected subset of them. Indeed, they could have obtained the same results—jars of whole walnuts—even if they’d had only a tiny success rate, one in a thousand, say—by choosing only the successful outcomes to package as whole walnuts.<


Salopp: Bloß Erfolge sichtbar. Misserfolge verborgen.

Das Sammeln von Eindrücken:

Z.B.: Manche Stellen eines Textes auf sich wirken lassen;


In Nähe dazu: Manche Stellen eines Textes durchdenken / innerlich kommentieren / abschreiben und in eigene Worte übertragen;

Explorierendes Verhalten:

Das explorierende Verhalten als ein Verhalten, dem es primär darum geht, Neues kennen zu lernen, das die Wertthematik allerdings nur wenig berücksichtigt. Das Internet lädt regelrecht dazu ein, viel Zeit mit relativ inhaltslosem Explorieren zu verbringen. Als eine Art Gegenbewegung hierzu "Digital Minimalism".

The street performer:

Seth Godin:

"She stands on the corner, busking for tips. Most people walk by. That's fine. If someone walks by, changing your act to attract her or running after her is a foolish game. The performer seeks the people who choose to stop and watch and interact[.]"


Moral lebt im Wesentlichen davon, dass Personen einen lebendigen Bezug zur "Idee des Wertvollen" aufbauen und aufrecht erhalten.


Genialität als ein "Sinn für Wert"; Das Genie als eine Person, die Wert besonders klar und deutlich erkennt / die außerordentlich befähigt ist dazu, Wert zu detektieren bzw. Wert zu generieren;


Genialität als ein Etwas, das uns in die Lage versetzt, Wert zu detektieren, und das uns danach streben lässt, Wert hervorzubringen.


Beim Kulturschaffen geht es darum, wertvolle Stunden oder Ideen einzufangen, im Kulturwerk.

Bei vielen Handlungen oder Leistungen, die wir tagtäglich erbringen, steht durchaus kein solches "Einfangen" im Vordergrund.


Wann und Wo ein Mensch in Widerspruch zu dem gerät, was er eigentlich sein könnte und sein "sollte".

Freitag, 20. März 2020


Wozu sich mit der Wissenschaft beschäftigen? Wozu Zeit mit der Wissenschaft verbringen? Des positiven inneren Erlebnisses wegen, das die Beschäftigung mit und die Suche nach Wissen mit sich bringen kann?

Exploration versus Exploitation / Erkunden versus Ausschöpfen:



"our intuitions about rationality are too often informed by exploitation rather than exploration. When we talk about decision making, we usually focus on the immediate payoff of a single decision - and if you treat every decision as if it were your last, then indeed only exploitation makes sense. But over a lifetime, you're going to make a lot of decisions. And it's actually rational to emphasize exploration - the new rather than the best, the exciting rather than the safe, the random rather than the considered - for many of those choices, particular earlier in life."

Brian Christian & Tom Griffiths

Grenzen des Planens:

Manches, vieles, lässt sich bewegen, in dieser Welt, in dem zur vorgeschriebenen Stunde, eine bestimmte Zeitspanne lang, eine vorgeschriebene Tätigkeit ausgeführt wird. Doch es gibt da auch anderes, im Leben, das sich weitgehendst dieser zeitlichen Einordnung entzieht / das sich nicht einfach herbeizwingen lässt / das passiert, wenn es passieren mag.


Sofern ein Kulturwerk höheres Leben, inneres Leben, wertvolleres Leben enthält, so kann derjenige, der sich diesem Werk widmet, Anklänge dieses Lebens erfahren.


Ein Musikstück entstammt einem bestimmten Leben und bringt ein bestimmtes Leben hervor. Ein Kunstwerk entstammt einem bestimmten Leben und bringt ein bestimmtes Leben hervor. Eine Philosophie entstammt einem bestimmten Leben und bringt ein bestimmtes Leben hervor. Etc.

Man könnte also sagen: Die Sehnsucht nach einem bestimmten Leben / nach einer bestimmten Sorte von Lebendigkeit treibt uns zu manchen Werken.


Jede Kultur, eine Antwort auf die Frage: Wie sieht die "Idee des guten Lebens" / wie sieht eine Verwirklichung der "Idee des guten Lebens" konkret aus?

Donnerstag, 19. März 2020

Kognitive Überforderung:

Wenn der Schwierigkeitsgrad oder Komplexitätsgrad einer Aufgabe so hoch ist, dass sie nicht mehr kognitiv bewältigt werden kann.

Beiträge zu naturwissenschaftlichen Themen:

Beiträge dieses Blogs zu naturwissenschaftlichen Themen werden sich weiterhin auf das Einstellen von Abstracts bzw. von Auszügen aus Artikeln oder aus Büchern beschränken. Hinzu kommt nun allerdings auch, dass ich nach und nach einige Artikel von Colin DeYoung "abschreiben", d.h. in eigenen Worten darstellen werde. Das Vorhaben kündigte ich vor längerem an. Leider kam es damals zu keiner Umsetzung.

Das Detektieren von Kausalität:

~ Ein Ereignis führt bzw. bestimmte Ereignisse führen ein anderes Ereignis herbei;

Schwierige Aufgaben:

Beim Lösen von schwierigen Aufgaben geht es darum, die Aufgabe in Unteraufgaben zu zerhacken, von denen jede einzelne gelöst werden kann.

Suboptimale Lösungen / Pseudolösungen:

Das Aufgeben von Pseudolösungen:

Manchmal hat sich eine Lage vorerst zu verschlechtern, um sich anschließend deutlich bessern zu können.

[Siehe auch: The Lobster Trap]

Zufriedenheit / Unzufriedenheit / Glückseligkeit:

Es ist wohl so, im Leben: Man kehrt von einem Zustand der Zufriedenheit immer wieder zurück in einen Zustand der Unzufriedenheit. Dauerhafte Zufriedenheit lässt sich kaum realisieren.


[Siehe auch: Immanuel Kant zum Thema]


Innere Unzufriedenheit: Z.B. ein Unzufriedensein mi dem eigenen Verhalten;

Mittwoch, 18. März 2020

Friendship and Status:

Mark Manson:

"Unconditional relationships are the only real relationships. They cannot be shaken by the ups and downs of life. They are not altered by superficial benefits and failures. ... The relationship is not subjected to the coolness economy where I drop you the second you start hurting my chances to impress others."

"People with conditional relationships never learned to see the people around them in terms of anything other than the benefits they provide."


Robert Wright:

"one might suspect that, from natural selection's point of view, status assistance is the main purpose of friendship."


Freundschaften bzw. 'Allianzen', die sich in schwereren Zeiten sogleich auflösen versus Freundschaften bzw. 'Allianzen', die schwerere Zeiten überstehen;

Genialität / "Moralsinn":

Zum einen ein Etwas, das Wert generiert;

Zum anderen ein Etwas, das Wert detektiert (im Wahrgenommenen, in Gedanken, in Handlungen, im Mitmenschlichen);


Achtung des Mitmenschen:

Etwas im eigenen Innern, das echten menschlichen Wert erkennen lässt, wenn man ihm begegnet.


Im inneren Erleben schwingt ein Detektieren von Wert mit. Im äußeren Erleben nicht.


Man könnte auch sagen: Das bewusste Detektieren und Hervorbringen von Wert kann das Menschenleben sehr reich machen.


Moralisches Leben:

Letztlich ein Leben, das von dem Streben bestimmt ist, etwas subjektiv als anstrebenswert oder als wertvoll  Empfundenes zu realisieren.


Es findet sich ein Wollen im Menschen, das als aufbauend, hervorbringend, generativ, konstruktiv bezeichnet werden kann. Das Menschenleben wird umso reicher, je mehr Raum diesem Wollen eingeräumt wird.

The deep life:

"A life focused intensely on the things that really matter — even if it’s riddled with ups and downs — trumps a comfortable life that unfolds with haphazard numbness or excessive narcissism.

The tricky part in cultivating a deep life, of course, is figuring out what things matter. This will differ between different people. I strive to divide my focused attention among four categories:
  • community (family, friends, etc.),
  • craft (work and quality leisure),
  • constitution (health), and
  • contemplation (matters of the soul).
In each of these areas I keep striving to identify the big swings — the actions or commitments that will make the most difference — while clearing out the detritus that gets in the way (this latter goal giving rise to my obsession with productivity). They all interact: constitution enables better craft, while contemplation, as it so often does, provides a template for basically everything that’s important. Sometimes I’m more successful in these efforts than others. I’m better at it now than when I was at 25, and think I’ll be even better when I’m 45."


Die "Stimme" im eigenen Inneren, d.h. der Sinn im eigenen Innern, der einen darauf hinweist, was gut und wertvoll ist, kann in ihren/seinen Auskünften deutlicher und klarer werden, kann aber auch regelrecht verblassen.


Das Detektieren von Wert und Unwert als Aufgabe des Moralsinns;



Ein Etwas, das über Wert und Unwert von Handlungen, das über Sinn, Unsinn und Widersinn von Verhalten Auskunft gibt;


Fokussiertes Nachdenken:

Wie sehr es eine Person schafft, bei einem Gedankengang Informationen auszublenden, die den Gedankengang nicht unterstützen.


Manches Lesen lässt sich im Sinne eines Sammelns von Denkanstößen verstehen.


Man geht anders vor, beim Lesen, je nachdem, ob man bestrebt ist, Denkstöße zu sammeln, oder ob man es vorhat, den Text abzuspeichern. Worauf kommt es also an? Auf den Denkanstoß? Auf das Sammeln von Information?

Stark fokussiertes Nachdenken:

Es geht wohl primär darum, das Denken einem einzelnen Thema zuzuwenden, und vorübergehend Gedankensprüngen massiv entgegenzusteueren bzw. Gedankensprünge nicht zuzulassen / zu unterbinden.

[Siehe auch: Fokussierung]

The Trouble with Too Much Grit:

In "Range" von David Epstein widmet sich ein Kapitel exklusive diesem Thema. Zu Deutsch lässt sich der Kerninhalt dieses Kapitels in etwa beschreiben: "Probleme, die sich durch die Überbewertung oder Überschätzung der Beharrlichkeit ergeben; Vorteile, die ein weniger beharrliches Verhalten mit sich bringt;"

Play / Exploratory Behavior:

"In deliberately moving away from what might look like the metaphorical final resting point, each individual may end up somewhere better. Play may therefore fulfill a probing role that enables the individual to escape from false endpoints, or local optima (Bateson, 2011)."


"We don't stop playing because we grow old; we grow old because we stop playing."

George Bernard Shaw


Eine vermeintlich sichere Strategie kann lauten: "Investiere keine Ressourcen in das Explorieren!"

Plan-and-implement versus test-and-learn:

David Epstein:

"What Ibarra calls the 'plan-and-implement' model - the idea that we should first make a long-term plan and execute without deviation, as opposed to the 'test-and-learn' model - is entrenched in depictions of geniuses. Popular lore holds that sculptor Michelangelo would see a full figure in a block of marble before he ever touched it, and simply chip away the excess stone to free the figure inside. It is an exquisite beautiful image. It just isn't true. Art historian William Wallace showed that Michelangelo was actually a test-and-learn all-star. He constantly changed his mind and altered his sculptural plans as he worked. He left three-fifths of his sculptures unfinished, each time moving on to something more promising."

[Also see: Switching, Early Exploration & Late Exploitation]


David Epstein:

"The important trick, he said, is staying attuned to whether switching is simply a failure of perseverance, or astute recognition that better matches are available."


Also see:

Randolph M. Nesse, Good Reasons for Bad Feelings:

"If you ever spent an afternoon picking wild raspberries, you have experienced the emotional changes that guide foraging. Finding a bush laden with ripe fruit arouses a tiny thrill. With joyful enthusiasm, you pull off berries in handfuls, some of which are so delectable they never make it to the bucket, As the bush gets depleted, the berries come more slowly, then slower yet. Enthusiasm wanes. Finally, you are reaching through prickles to try to get that one last deformed berry. Your motivation for picking from this bush is gone, and a good thing, too. It is senseless to try to get every berry from every bush. However, jumping too quickly from bush to bush is also unwise. How long should you stay at each bush to get the most berries per hour? The problem may seem abstract, but making such decisions well is crucial to the fitness of nearly every animal.

The mathematical behavioral ecologist Eric Charnov came up with an elegant solution, one that illuminates much about mood in everyday life. To keep things simple, assume that it always takes the same amount of time to find a new bush. ... When you find a bush, berries come fast at first, then slower and slower yet; ... The longer you stay, the more berries you get from that bush, but to get the most berries per hour, you need to stop and go looking for the next bush at just the right time.

The best time to stop is at the point that gets you the most berries per hour ...

Charnov called this the Marginal Value Theorem, because all the action is at that spot "on the margin" where the rate of getting berries at the current bush dips below the number of berries you can get per hour by moving to a new bush. The core idea is simple but profound. You don't have to do calculus to get the right answer, you just need to follow your emotions. To maximize the number of berries you get in a day, go looking for a new bush whenever you loose interest in the current bush. Thanks to your emotions having been programmed by natural selection, that will generally be the point at which the rate of berries coming from the current bush slows to the average number per minute across many bushes. This decision-making mechanism is built into the brains of nearly every organism. Ladybird beetles, honeybees, lizards, chipmunks, chimpanzees, and humans all make such foraging decisions well. No calculation is needed; motivation flags at the optimal time to make a switch.

The decision about when it is best to quit one kind of activity and do something different follows the same principle."

Dienstag, 17. März 2020


Wenn jemand sein Wesen in einen Text einbringt, also z.B. ein Gedicht schreibt, Aphorismen schreibt, oder Ähnliches, so kann eine Kritik des Textes ihn gegebenenfalls mehr treffen, als wenn hier ein bloßer Sachtext kritisiert worden wäre.

Das Einzige, was sich der Schreibende dann sagen kann, lautet in etwa: "Die Idee war da. Ich habe nicht ohne Idee geschrieben."


Das Realisieren von Werten: Moralisch verhält sich eine Person, wenn sie etwas Wertvolles Wirklichkeit werden lässt;

[Siehe auch: Moral]

Happiness versus Meaningful Behavior:

Time Blocking:


"In my experience, a serious commitment to time blocking can roughly double your results."

"I take time blocking seriously, dedicating ten to twenty minutes every evening to building my schedule for the next day. During this planning process I consult my task lists and calendars, as well as my weekly and quarterly planning notes. My goal is to make sure progress is being made on the right things at the right pace for the relevant deadlines."

"Sometimes people ask why I bother with such a detailed level of planning. My answer is simple: it generates a massive amount of productivity. A 40 hour time-blocked work week, I estimate, produces the same amount of output as a 60+ hour work week pursued without structure."

"the best knowledge workers view their time like the best investors view their capital, as a resource to wield for maximum returns."