Sonntag, 13. Oktober 2019

Ethology:

Frans de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics, 1982:

"The greatest difference between ethology and psychological behavioral study of animals lies in ethology's strong emphasis on spontaneous behavior in the natural environment, or at least under the most natural conditions possible. Ethologists do conduct experiments, but never completely detached from their fieldwork. They are first and foremost patient observers. This attitude of waiting to see what the animals do of their own accord, instead of encouraging a particular kind of behavior for experimental purposes, also characterizes our research in Arnhem."

Frans de Waal on Perception:

Frans de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics:

"Everyone can look, but actually perceiving is something that has to be learned. This is a constantly recurring problem when new students arrive. For the first few weeks they 'see' nothing at all. When I explain to them at the end of an aggressive incident in the colony that 'Yeroen rushed up to Mama and slapped her, whereupon Gorilla and Mama joined forces and pursued Yeroen, who sought refuge with Nikkie,' they look at me as if I am crazy. Whereas to me this is a superficial summary of a fairly simple interaction (only four chimpanzees were involved), the students have only seen a few black beasts chaotically charging around uttering ear-piercing screams. They probably will have missed the hard slap.

At such times I have to remember that I too went through a long period when I found myself wondering at the apparent lack of structure in these episodes, whereas the real problem was not the lack of structure but my own lack of perception. It is necessary to be completely familiar with the many individuals, their respective friendships and rivalries, all their gestures, characteristic sounds, facial expressions, and other kinds of behavior. Only then do the wild scenes we see actually begin to make sense.

Initially we only see what we recognize. Someone who knows nothing about chess and who watches a game between two players will not be aware of the tension on the board. Even if the watcher stays for an hour, he or she will still have great difficulty in accurately reproducing the state of the play on another board. A grand master, on the other hand, would grasp and memorize the position of every piece in one concentrated glance of a few seconds. This is not a difference of memory, but of perception. Whereas to the uninitiated the positions of the chess pieces are unrelated, the initiated attach great significance to them and see how they threaten and cover each other. It is easier to remember something with a structure than a chaotic jumble.

This is the synthesizing principle of the so-called Gestalt perception: the whole, or Gestalt, is more than the sum of its parts. Learning to perceive is learning to recognize the patterns in which the components regularly occur. Once we are familiar with the patterns of interaction between chess pieces or chimpanzees, they seem so striking and obvious that it is difficult to imagine how other people can get bogged down in all kinds of detail and miss the essential logic of the maneuvers."

[Siehe auch: Konrad Lorenz über die Gestaltwahrnehmung]

Samstag, 12. Oktober 2019

Freitag, 11. Oktober 2019

Gedankengänge:

Intuitiv:

Bei jedem einzelnen Denkschritt wird entschieden, ob sich eine Sache so, oder ob sie sich anders verhält.

[Verhält sich die Sache so? Ja? Nein?]

Das geistige Leben wird davon bestimmt, wir rasch und wie akkurat solche Denkschritte ablaufen.

Donnerstag, 10. Oktober 2019

"Regelblindheit":

Der Fehler, ein Zuviel an Zufälligkeit in die Welt hineinzudeuten;

Z.B.: 
"Ein jeder US-Amerikaner kann der nächste US-Präsident werden."

Im Sinne maximaler Zufälligkeit:
"Die Wahrscheinllichkeit / Chance, der nächste US-Präsident zu werden, ist für alle US-Amerikaner gleich groß."

Mittwoch, 9. Oktober 2019

Originalität:

Wilhelm Ostwald (1910):

"Ich antworte vorläufig, dass Originalität, d.h. die Fähigkeit, sich selbst etwas einfallen zu lassen, was über die Aufnahme des Dargebotenen hinausgeht, von allen Eigenschaften, die den Forscher machen, die wichtigste ist. Exakte Arbeit, Selbstkritik, Gewissenhaftigkeit, Kenntnisse und Fertigkeiten, alle diese gleichfalls nötigen Dinge lassen sich durch geeignete Schulung erwerben. Originalität aber kann zwar gepflegt, andererseits auch vernichtet werden, aber sie hat von allen Eigenschaften des Forschers bei weitem am meisten den Charakter einer angeborenen oder ursprünglichen Begabung."

[Siehe auch: Two kinds of science, Creativity and Genius, Intuition]

IQ blogs collections:

https://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?p=8075

Sprechen:

(A) das Sprechen über Objekte

(B) das Aussprechen / verbale Anzeigen des eigenen Zumuteseins

...

-----

Ein Kunstwerk entspringt einem bestimmten Zumutesein und erzeugt / vermittelt ein bestimmtes Zumutesein / Erleben. Transportiert also nicht primär ein Wissen um Objekte.

-----

[Siehe auch: Systemizers, Empathizers]

Dienstag, 8. Oktober 2019

Algorithms:

Donald Knuth, 1977:

"An algorithm is a set of rules for getting a specific output from a specific input."

Montag, 7. Oktober 2019

The gossip test:

"Working in the Admiralty, I had several friends among the naval officers. They were interested in science but knew even less about it than I did. One day I noticed that I was telling them, with some enthusiasm, about recent advances in antibiotics - penicillin and such. Only that evening did it occur to me that I myself really knew almost nothing about these topics, apart from what I had read in Penguin Science or some similar periodical. It came to me that I was not really telling them about science. I was gossiping about it. This insight was a revelation to me. I had discovered the gossip test - what you are really interested in is what you gossip about. Without hesitation, I applied it to my recent conversations. Quickly I narrowed down my interests to two main areas: the borderline between the living and the nonliving, and the workings of the brain."

Francis Crick, What Mad Pursuit

Web of Stories - Francis Crick:

https://www.webofstories.com/play/francis.crick/1

Abergläubigkeit:

Wie viel Ergebnisoffenheit liegt vor in dieser Welt?

Abergläubigkeit als die Tendenz, die Ergebnisoffenheit zu unterschätzen;

Z.B.: Das Roulettespiel: 

"Wenn ich mich bloß stark genug konzentriere, dann wird die Kugel auf der Zahl 35 zu liegen kommen."

Z.B.: Der Glückstag:

"Heute ist mein Glückstag. Es werden sich bloß wunderbare Sachen ereignen."

Vorausblick:

Oktober: Besprechung des Buches "Digital Minimalism;

November & Dezember: Besprechung einiger Artikel von Colin DeYoung;

Jänner & Februar: Besprechungen zu einigen Artikeln von Linda S. Gottfredson;

Sonntag, 6. Oktober 2019

Ross und Reiter:

(1) die von Mensch zu Mensch unterschiedliche Beschaffenheit des Antriebs - der Motive, Motivationen, Motiviertheiten;

(2) der von Mensch zu Mensch unterschiedliche Umgang mit dem eigenen Antrieb, den eigenen Motiven / Motiviertheiten;

[Siehe auch: Was uns Menschen wirklich vom ... ]

Dienstag, 1. Oktober 2019

Elevation and idealistic attitudes

Elevation, an emotion for prosocial contagion, is experienced more strongly by those with greater expectations of the cooperativeness of others
Adam Maxwell Sparks, Daniel M. T. Fessler & Colin Holbrook (2019)


Abstract

A unique emotion, elevation, is thought to underlie prosocial contagion, a process thereby witnessing a prosocial act leads to acting prosocially. Individuals differ in their propensity to experience elevation, and thus their proneness to prosocial contagion, but little is known about the causes of such variation. We introduce an adaptationist account wherein elevation marks immediate circumstances in which prosociality is advantageous, with this evaluation of circumstances hinging in part on prior expectations of others’ prosociality. In 15 studies, we add to evidence that elevation can reliably be elicited and mediates prosocial contagion. Importantly, we confirm the novel prediction–generated by our adaptationist account–that an idealistic attitude, which indexes others’ expected degree of prosociality, moderates the relationship between exposure to prosocial cues and experiencing elevation. Our findings inform both basic theorizing in the affective sciences and translational efforts to engineer a more harmonious world.

-----

>Attitudes can be characterized along a dimension we label “idealism-cynicism.” A more idealistic attitude towards someone indexes the expectation that the person tends to treat people prosocially; a more cynical (i.e., less idealistic) attitude towards someone corresponds to the expectation of more selfish behavior. An individual who has more idealistic prior attitudes towards the people involved in a social scenario should be more likely to interpret the witnessed behavior of the apparently prosocial exemplar as genuinely prosocial; more likely to expect cooperative responses to that behavior by others; and more likely to expect similar treatment herself in response to her own prosocial behavior. Conversely, a more cynical attitude towards the same individuals makes it less likely that the exemplar’s actions are interpreted as genuinely prosocial; less likely that other actors are expected to respond cooperatively to the original action; and less likely that the witness will assume that her own prosocial behavior would be rewarded. Accordingly, a witness’s idealism-cynicism towards the actors in a scenario (for simplicity, hereafter idealism) should moderate elevation and subsequent behavior in response to that scenario.<

Das Denken:

Dem Denken geht es darum, festzustellen, wie ein Phänomen ein anderes Phänomen, eine Sache eine andere Sache, bedingt/festlegt/bestimmt.

Denken als eine Suche nach Bedingtheiten;

-----

Bedingtheit z.B. in der Form:

"Wenn A, dann B."

Ich beobachte A und weiß um die Regel. Somit erschließt sich mir B.

Oder:

Ich beobachte A und B und schließe auf die Regel.

Sonntag, 29. September 2019

Das Schenken:

Manchmal verhält es sich so: Das Schenken bereichert den Schenkenden.

Redundanzen:

~ Wenn der Inhalt eines Signals / einer Nachricht vom Inhalt vorhergehender / angrenzender Signale / Nachrichten her erschlossen werden kann. (Teilweise oder zur Gänze.)

-----

Z.B.: Ich weiß um den Zusammenhang (und hiermit auch um die Stärke des Zusammenhangs) zwischen Körperhöhe und Körpermasse von Männern eines bestimmten Alters. Mir ist nun die Körperhöhe eines Mannes entsprechenden Alters bekannt. Somit kann ich dessen Körpermasse predicten. Erhalte ich nun eine Nachricht mit dem tatsächlichen Wert seiner Körpermasse, so wird diese Nachricht umso überraschender, informativer bzw. informationshaltiger sein, je mehr dieser Wert vom predicteten Wert abweicht.

Samstag, 28. September 2019

Sytemizers, Empathizers:

In Anlehnung an Baron-Cohen:

Extreme Empathizer deuten in alles und jedes Seelengehalt und Seelisches hinein, übersehen aber Systeme, oder verstehen solche generell nicht.

Extreme Systemizer finden überall Systeme, übersehen aber, oder ignorieren, Seelisches und seelische Gehalte.

-----

Ein (extremerer) Systemizer würde z.B. eine Schönheitserfahrung als ein Auffinden von bestimmten Symmetrien, Mustern und Strukturen interpretieren.

Ein (extremerer) Empathizer würde die gleiche Schönheiterfahrung eher als ein Auffinden seelischer Gehalte interpretieren.

Freitag, 27. September 2019

Reine Begriffe:

In der Mathematik arbeitet man mit konstruierten Begriffen.

-----

Synthetische Urteile a priori:

Thema: Das Verknüpfen konstruierter Begriffe;

Kausalitätsgedanke:

(1) Kein Ereignis ohne Ursache
(2) Unter gleichen Bedingungen passiert Gleiches

Hierbei handelt es sich um einen Gedanken (und also nicht um ein Faktum). Um einen Gedanken, den wir in solch einer Form, oder in ähnlicher Form, in die Welt mitbringen.

Erfassung von Kerncharakteristiken:

Was eine Erscheinung / ein Phänomen von anderen Erscheinungen / anderen Phänomenen unterscheidet;

Mittwoch, 25. September 2019

Denken:

Denken als ein Auffinden von Redundanzen, also insbesondere auch: als ein Auffinden von stochastischen Abhängigkeiten / Ereigniskopplungen;

Dienstag, 24. September 2019

Mußestunden:

Zeit für Eigenleben;

Tiefe Aufmerksamkeit:

Wie kultiviert man tiefe Aufmerksamkeit? Als Oktober-Artikel wird eine kurze Besprechung des Buches "Digital Minimalism" erscheinen.

Ziel/Änderung:

Einen Artikel pro Monat, hier auf diesem Blog, zu veröffentlichen, in dem ein paar Stunden Arbeit stecken. 

Diese Artikel werden jeweils gekennzeichnet.

Das übrige Bloggen bleibt wie bisher.

Samstag, 21. September 2019

Binge Drinking is Associated with Sex-Specific Cognitive Deficits:

Liana Hone, John Scofield, Bruce Bartholow, David Geary

Abstract

This study tested the hypothesis that sex differences in visuospatial abilities (favoring men) and social-cognitive abilities (favoring women) will be attenuated with chronic stressor exposure, binge drinking in this case. Among light drinkers, men’s typical advantage on visuospatial tasks (Ns = 73, 116; ds = 0.72, 0.49) and women’s typical advantage on a social-cognitive task (N = 210; d = 0.29) was confirmed. Among binge drinkers, men’s advantage was reduced for one visuospatial task and eliminated for another (Ns = 102, 93; ds = 0.43, -0.26), and women’s advantage on the social-cognitive task was eliminated (N = 209; d = 0.17). Males who frequently engaged in extreme binges (> 11 drinks/episode) had exaggerated deficits on one of the visuospatial tasks, as did their female counterparts on the social-cognitive task. The results suggest sex-specific vulnerabilities associated with binge drinking, and support an evolutionary approach to the study of such vulnerabilities.

Freitag, 20. September 2019

Narzissmus:

Eine Deutung des Narzissmus von Raphael Bonelli:

„Das heißt, je mehr Selbsttranszendenz der Mensch hat, umso gesünder ist er psychisch, umso mehr kann er sich auch sozial einordnen. Und jetzt haben wir beim Narzissten das alles nicht. Dem Narzisst fehlt gerade Selbsttranszendenz auf eine ganz dramatische Art und Weise. Und deswegen liegt nahe, das Wort Immanenz zu verwenden. Immanenz kommt vom Lateinischen immanere, das heißt drinnen bleiben, oder anhaften. Die Unfähigkeit, auf das Hohe zu gehen. Die Transzendenz in der Philosophie hat die Immanenz als Gegenteil. 

... 

Der Mensch, der nicht aus sich selbst heraus kommt. Der Mensch, der in sich selbst gefangen bleibt. Und das ist eigentlich in erster Linie der Narzisst. Und so gesehen … können wir sagen, die Selbstimmanenz verhindert die Selbstverwirklichung. 

... 

Wenn wir uns jetzt wieder den Narzissten zuwenden und ihn genauer anschauen, dann sehen wir, dass der Narzisst in sich etwas ganz Besonderes spürt, etwas Außergewöhnliches, etwas Heiliges, und zwar sich selbst. Und alles was mit diesem Ich, mit diesem Selbst verbunden ist, wird automatisch besonders, nur deswegen weil es eben eine Verbindung mit diesem Heiligen hat. Und der Terminus oder die Verwendung von religiösen Begriffen in diesem Zusammenhang sind meiner Meinung nach sehr stimmig. Analytiker haben das sehr eng mit Religiosität in Zusammenhang gebracht, weil es sozusagen ein Spiegelbild von gesunder Religiosität ist, wenn der Narzisst beeindruckt ist, von dem, was er in sich selbst findet.“

Mittwoch, 18. September 2019

Das Bloggen:

Ein Blog wird wohl erst dann besonders interessant, wenn der Blogger nicht bloß Ideen und die Denkarbeit anderer spiegelt, sondern auch eigene Ideen und Denkarbeit einbringt.

Tage:

  • Tage mit Gegenwind
  • Tage mit Rückenwind
  • ...

Sonntag, 15. September 2019

Solitude Deprivation:

Cal Newport:

"A state in which you spend close to zero time alone with your own thoughts and free from input from other minds."

Samstag, 14. September 2019

Intelligenzunterschiede:

Unterschiede in der allgemeinen Effektivität des kognitiven Problemlösens, d.h. darin, mit welcher Qualität und Geschwindigkeit sich kognitive Problemlösevorgänge generell abspielen, wie rasch und fehlerfrei Denkvorgänge arbeiten;

Freitag, 13. September 2019

Cal Newport:

>the human brain is not a computer processor. A silicon chip etched with microscopic circuits switches cleanly from instruction to instruction, agnostic to the greater context from which the current instruction arrived: op codes are executed; electrons flow; the circuit clears; the next op code is loaded.

The human brain is messier.

When you switch your brain to a new “thread,” a whole complicated mess of neural activity begins to activate the proper sub-networks and suppress others. This takes time. When you then rapidly switch to another “thread,” that work doesn’t clear instantaneously like electrons emptying from a circuit, but instead lingers, causing conflict with the new task.

...

This is all to say that the closer I look at the evidence regarding how our brains function, the more I’m convinced that we’re designed to be single-threaded, working on things one at a time, waiting to reach a natural stopping point before moving on to what’s next.<

Donnerstag, 12. September 2019

Das reine Denken:

Das nicht-empirische, konstruierende Denken;

-----

Allgemein: In welchem Ausmaß lässt sich die Wirklichkeit per Konstruktion entschlüsseln bzw. vorwegnehmen?

-----

[Siehe auch: Models and Theories]

Mittwoch, 11. September 2019

Humor:

"It's human nature to want to spend time with people who can appreciate a good laugh or, better yet, cause one."

Scott Adams

Geschlechtliche Fortpflanzung:

Salopp:

(1) die Hälfte der Gene werden über Bord geworfen
(2) neue Gene werden an Bord geholt

Montag, 9. September 2019

Grundfrage:

Wie viel Ordnung, wie viel Regelmäßigkeit, wie viel Logik steckt in der Natur?

Umgedreht:
Wie viel Unordnung, wie viel Zufall findet sich?

-----

Salopp: Wie viel Klarheit lässt sich gewinnen, in dieser Welt? Wie viel Unklarheit bleibt dauerhaft vorhanden?

Sonntag, 8. September 2019

Intelligence:

Linda S. Gottfredson - g Theory:

"The advantages of higher intelligence operate like a tailwind in virtually all life domains, weak in some but strong in others. It is a strictly cognitive trait, not affective, social, or physical. Data on test, school, and job performance all tell the same story: having higher g gives individuals a bigger edge in performing tasks well when the tasks (a) are instrumental (getting something done, correctly), (b) require more complex information processing, and (c) must be carried out independently. Conversely, low levels of g can create severe disadvantages for individuals, a stiff headwind, as they attempt to navigate our highly complex, bureaucratic, technological modern world."

-----

"Intelligence is a maximal trait – what a person can do when circumstances are favorable. That is what IQ tests are intended to measure, one’s best. Developing intelligence can refer to raising one’s maximum, working to one’s maximum to develop specific skills and knowledge, or protecting it from preventable decline (Gottfredson, 2008). I see no compelling evidence that any educational, brain training, nutritional, or pharmacological intervention has yet been able to raise a person’s maximal level of intelligence (g), either absolutely or relative to others their age. The apparent increases produced by education and training programs either do not generalize or they fade away. Nutritional interventions have produced mental and physical growth, but only among individuals with a nutritional (e.g., vitamin) deficiency; it is termed 'catch-up growth.' "

Freitag, 6. September 2019

"Small souled men":

Douglas Hofstadter:

>The critic James Huneker, writing of Chopin’s Etude opus 25 no. 1, said “Small souled men, no matter how agile their fingers, should avoid it.” What an incredible pronouncement! Yet it has a certain truth to it, snobbish and elitist though it might be to say so. But who will provide the soul meter?<

Mittwoch, 28. August 2019

Fotografieren:

Ausgangsfrage: An welchen Phänomenen bleibt das eigene Auge hängen?

-----

[Analog hierzu: An welchen Informationen bleibt das eigene Denken hängen?]
"I would be lost without my walks because they've become one of my best sources of solitude."

Cal Newport

Freitag, 23. August 2019

Ray Bradbury:

"as a writer, I don't go in with lists of things to read, I go in blindly and reach up on shelves and take down books and open them, and fall in love immediately. And if I don't fall in love that quickly, shut the book, back on the shelf, find another book and fall in love with it."

Sonntag, 18. August 2019

Das Kategorisieren:

Salopp gesagt: Wir müssen Phänomene in Schubladen stecken, um uns in dieser Welt zurechtfinden zu können.

-----

Urteilen:
~ Eine Sache unter eine Kategorie bringen / in bestimmter Weise kategorisieren;

Effektives Vorgehen:

  • Pause
  • Ein paar Schritte in die richtige Richtung
  • Pause
  • Einige Schritte in die richtige Richtung
  • Pause
  • ...

[Siehe auch: Impulskontrolle]

Samstag, 17. August 2019

Play:

"Of all animal species, humans are the biggest players of all."

Stuart Brown

-----

"consider what the world would be like without play. It’s not just an absence of games or sports. Life without play is a life without books, without movies, art, music, jokes, dramatic stories. Imagine a world with no flirting, no day-dreaming, no comedy, no irony. Such a world would be a pretty grim place to live. In a broad sense, play is what lifts people out of the mundane. I sometimes compare play to oxygen—it’s all around us, yet goes mostly unnoticed or unappreciated until it is missing."
"When Yeroen finally lost his top spot, he would often sit staring into the distance after a fight, an empty expression on his face. He was oblivious to the social activity around him and refused food for weeks. We thought he was sick, but the veterinarian found nothing wrong. Yeroen seemed a mere ghost of the impressive big shot he had been. I’ve never forgotten this image of a beaten and dejected Yeroen. When power was lost, the lights in him went out."

Frans de Waal

Mittwoch, 14. August 2019

Colin DeYoung:

scholar.google.com

Vocabulary among Americans:

"When controlled for educational attainment, the vocabulary of the average U.S. adult declined between the mid-1970s and the 2010s. Vocabulary declined across all levels of educational attainment (less than high school, high school or 2-year college graduate, bachelor's or graduate degree), with the largest declines among those with a bachelor's or graduate degree."

"Increasing educational attainment has apparently not improved verbal ability among Americans. Instead, as educational attainment has increased, those at each educational level are less verbally skilled even though the vocabulary skills of the whole population are unchanged."

Dienstag, 13. August 2019

Montag, 12. August 2019

Tugend / Moral:

~ Die Existenz eines persönlichen Verhaltensoptimums, an das sich der Einzelne herantasten kann;
"The Premacks noted that one of the difficulties in teaching language to a caged subject is finding things to talk about. There is only so long even food-motivated chimpanzees will be willing to talk about bananas."

[Source, via Robin Hanson]

Sonntag, 11. August 2019

"Perhaps an optimal balance between Type I and Type II error rates occurs when an individual has high levels of intelligence as well as Openness (which is typical, given that they are positively correlated), allowing high levels of cognitive exploration and creativity, without functional impairment (DeYoung, 2015). This personal profile would likely be associated with a high degree of initial Type I errors (due to high Openness), paired with effective screening of these errors (due to high intelligence). In other words, some tendency toward apophenia could be advantageous when coupled with intact reality testing. Thus, individuals high in Openness who have intact cognitive functioning may exhibit above average functional outcomes, despite a tendency toward apophenia, given that the combination of high levels of pattern seeking and intelligence likely facilitates the generation and application of creative thinking."

Scott D. Blain et al. - Apophenia and the openness-psychoticism spectrum

Psychoticism, Neuroticism, and Openness:

"although psychoticism, like almost all forms of psychopathology, has a sizeable association with Neuroticism, it loads primarily on a factor with Openness, not Neuroticism, when Intellect and Openness are measured separately (DeFruyt et al., 2013; DeYoung et al. 2012, 2016)."

Freitag, 9. August 2019

Kognitive Organisiertheit:

Klare Prioritäten: Die Tendenz, den Löwenanteil der eigenen Gedanken den allerwichtigsten Fragen, Problemen und Aufgaben zu widmen;

Donnerstag, 8. August 2019

"be average":

"When you try hard to do your best, the effect on your performance is often to jinx it."

Patricia Ryan Madson - improv wisdom

Dienstag, 6. August 2019

The importance of romantic partners for later life:


Costly signals:

Zahavi & Zahavi:

>We believe that natural selection encompasses two different, and often opposing, processes. One kind of selection favors straightforward efficiency, and it works in all areas except signaling. This selection makes features - other than signals - more effective and less costly; we suggest calling it "utilitarian selection." The other kind of selection, by which signals evolve, results in costly features and traits that look like "waste." It is precisely this costliness, the signaler's investment in the signals, that makes signals reliable.<

Montag, 5. August 2019

"They preferred to imagine cause and effect in simple terms: a person or personified thing producing a big change over a short time, and not impersonal forces producing an accumulation of small changes over a long time."

Interesse an einer Information:

Die Interessiertheit als ein subjektives Gespür für den Wert / die Relevanz einer Information;

Urteilskraft:

Im Sinne von Kant:
~ Die Fähigkeit unterscheiden zu können, was an Besonderem eine allgemeine Aussage beinhaltet, und was nicht. (Somit letztlich auch: Welche (deduktiven) Schlüsse eine allgemeine Aussage erlaubt, und welche nicht.) 

Nicht das bloße Abspeichern von allgemeinen Aussagen ist von Interesse, sondern die Fähigkeit, solche Aussagen schlussfolgernd verwerten zu können.

Mustererkennung:

Gemäß Peter Hofstätter lässt sich Intelligenz als die Fähigkeit, Redundanzen aufzufinden, charakterisieren. Zwei Fehler können sich nun ereignen: Es kann mehr Redundanz / mehr Regelmäßigkeit vermutet werden als vorliegt. Es kann weniger Redundanz / weniger Regelmäßigkeit vermutet werden als vorliegt. 

Z.B.: Ein Fläche von 1000 mal 1000 Pixeln. Die Farbe der Pixel (schwarz bzw. weiß) wird für alle Pixel per Wurf mit einer fairen Münze festgelegt. Anschließend werden zufällig 1000 Pixel abgedeckt und eine Person hat die Farbe der Pixel zu erraten. Auf der Fläche lassen sich nun teilweise Anhäufungen von Pixeln, lassen sich gewisse Pixelstrukturen erkennen. Interessant ist aber, dass diese Anhäufungen bzw. diese Strukturen keinerlei Information über die Färbung der zugedeckten Pixel enthalten. D.h., wenn wir bereits darüber informiert sind, dass schwarze und weiße Pixel etwa gleichhäufig vorkommen, erhöht sich der Rateerfolg keineswegs, wenn wir die Farbausprägungen der 999 000 vorhandendenen Pixel genauestens studieren. Das Umfeld eines zugedeckten Pixels enthält keine Information über die Färbung des zugedeckten Pixels. Es könnte sich jemand aber nun die Arbeit machen, vorhandene Pixelstrukturen genauestens zu studieren, um auf die Farbbeschaffenheit der zugedeckten Pixel zu schließen. Solch eine Person würde in zufällig entstandene Pixelstrukturen eine Regelmäßigkeit hineindeuten. Würde das Rauschen als Muster interpretieren.

-----

Die zwei Fehler:

(A) ein Rauschen als Muster zu interpretieren
(B) ein Muster als Rauschen zu interpretieren

Uncertainty:

Hirsch, Peterson, Mar - Psychological Entropy (2011):

"(a) Uncertainty poses a critical adaptive challenge for any organism, so individuals are motivated to keep it at a manageable level; (b) uncertainty emerges as a function of the conflict between competing perceptual and behavioral affordances; (c) adopting clear goals and belief structures helps to constrain the experience of uncertainty by reducing the spread of competing affordances; and (d) uncertainty is experienced subjectively as anxiety and is associated with activity in the anterior cingular cortex and heightened noradrenaline release."

-----

"we argue that uncertainty presents a fundamental (and unavoidable) challenge to the integrity of any complex organism. The entropy-based model ... provides and organizing framework for understanding the critical importance of uncertainty management for an individual's survival, well-being, and productivity[.]"

-----

"psychological entropy, defined as the experience of conflicting perceptual and behavioral affordances."

-----

[Unsicherheit: Unklarheit darüber, was zu tun ist. Unklarheit darüber, was passiert / was passieren wird.]

-----

[Salopp: Der Mensch will und braucht Klarheit darüber, was zu tun ist / wie etwas zu interpretieren ist. (Eben da der Unklarheit etwas Lähmendes und Passivierendes anhaftet.)]

Samstag, 3. August 2019

Moral:

Der Mensch kann bewusst und explizit eine Verhaltensoptimierung anstreben. Das unterscheidet ihn von anderen Lebewesen.

Die Suche nach Regelmäßigkeit:

~ Das Aufdecken von Wenn-Dann-Verhältnissen in der eigenen Innen- und Umwelt;

Rapt:

Wenn wir mit starkem Interesse etwas wahrnehmen / mit starkem Interesse einer Frage nachgehen / uns mit starkem Interesse einer Tätigkeit widmen ...

Interesse:

Von allen Sachen, die einem bisher begegneten / von allem, was sich bisher ereignete, was war das interessanteste Buch, der interessanteste Artikel, der interessanteste Film, die interessanteste Musik, die interessanteste Person, das interessanteste Gespräch ...?

Donnerstag, 1. August 2019

Deep work:

How many hours each day do you spend deeply engaged in a problem solving activity?
"Just as places can be assessed in terms of their potential to stimulate, individuals can be described in terms of their capacity to be aroused."

Winifred Gallagher

Dienstag, 30. Juli 2019

"Darwinian creatures", "Skinnerian creatures", "Popperian creatures":

Daniel C. Dennett, From bacteria to Bach and back:


Darwinian creatures:

"They are born 'knowing' all they will ever 'know'; they are gifted but not learners."

"The merely Darwinian creature is 'hard-wired' ... We can expose its cluelessness by confronting it with novel variations on the conditions it has been designed by evolution to handle: it learns nothing and flounders helplessly."


Skinnerian creatures:

"[They] adjust their behavior in reaction to 'reinforcement'; they more or less randomly generate new behaviors to test in the world; those that get reinforced (with positive reward or by the removal of an aversive stimulus - pain or hunger, for instance) are more likely to recur in similar circumstances in the future."

"The Skinnerian creature starts out with some 'plasticity', some optionality in a repertoire of behaviors that is incompletely designed at birth; it learns by trial-and-error forays in the world and is hard-wired to favor the forays that have 'reinforcing' outcomes."


Popperian creatures:

"[They] extract information about the cruel world and keep it handy, so they can use it to pretest hypothetical behaviors offline, letting 'their hypotheses die in their stead'[.] Eventually thy must act in the real world, but their first choice is not random, having won the generate-and-test competition trial runs in the internal environment model."

"The Popperian creature looks before it leaps, testing candidates for action against information about the world it has stored in its brain somehow."

Montag, 29. Juli 2019

Data Science:

The art of extracting non-obvious and useful patterns from large data sets;


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What is data science?

"A data scientist is a statistician who lives in San Francisco."

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Salopp: Ein Datensatz enthält gewisse Informationen, die von Interesse sein könnten. Eine geeignete Analyse macht diese Informationen sichtbar.

Freitag, 26. Juli 2019

"Sensitiveness to immediately exciting sensorial stimuli characterizes the attention of childhood and youth. In mature age we have generally selected those stimuli which are connected with one or more so-called permanent interests, and our attention has grown irresponsive to the rest."

William James

Montag, 22. Juli 2019

Kausalitätsgedanke:

~ Unter gleichen Bedingungen passiert Gleiches;

Schlüsselaufgabe des bewussten Denkens:

Der Schluss von Bekanntem auf Unbekanntes;

[Siehe auch: noegenesis]

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Von zentraler Bedeutung ist sicherlich auch, zu identifizieren, was an Unbekanntem tatsächlich von Interesse ist. Und ob überhaupt, oder in welchem Ausmaß, das Unbekannte vom Bekannten her erschlossen werden kann.

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Wie viele Menschen gibt es, die so brennend an einer Frage interessiert sind, dass sie für die Beantwortung dieser Frage bereit wären, einen kleinen Finger zu opfern?

Freitag, 19. Juli 2019

Langeweile:

~ Das Gefühl der Unruhe, wenn Zeit verschwendet wird;

Das Sichtbarwerden der Begrenztheit zeitlicher Ressourcen:

Kinder und Jugendliche sind sich der Begrenztheit ihrer zeitlichen Ressourcen in der Regel noch nicht sonderlich bewusst. Die Einsicht in die Überschaubarkeit der eigenen Lebensspanne kann sich bei unterschiedlichen Personen zu recht unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten einstellen.

[Siehe auch: Exploration & Exploitation]

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Das Leben des Einzelmenschen wäre recht anders, wenn ihm unbegrenzte zeitliche Ressourcen zur Verfügung stünden.

Donnerstag, 18. Juli 2019

IIV:

"for more than 80 years (Fiske & Rice 1955), [psychologists] have accumulated evidence that nonsystematic variability in behaviour (i.e. IIV) is not simply random ‘noise’, but that it varies as a result of age and prior experience, may significantly vary across individuals, and may be stable across time within individuals (Nesselroade 1991; Siegler 2007; Ram & Gerstorf 2009; Salthouse & Nesselroade 2010)."

Judy A. Stamps et al. - Unpredictable animals

Play:

>play is comprised of sequences in which the players switch rapidly between well-controlled movements similar to those used in "serious" behavior and self-handicapping movements that result in temporary loss of control. We propose that this playful switching between in-control and out-of-control elements is cognitively demanding, setting phylogenetic and ontogenetic constraints on play, and is underlain by neuroendocrinological responses that produce a complex emotional state known as "having fun."<

Marek Spinka et al. - Mammalian Play: Training for the Unexpected

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"According to our hypothesis, play enables animals to develop emotional flexibility by rehearsing the emotional aspect of being surprised or temporarily disorientated or disabled. Although unexpected events that occur in a dangerous situation would likely magnify fear in inexperienced animals, we suggest that fear is modulated in play by the relatively safe context in which play occurs and the improbability that losing control will have serious consequences. In addition, regaining control following an unexpected challenge is likely to be rewarding, and the positive nature of this experience may be intensified by the rapid repetition of in-control and out-of-control elements that occur in play."

Functional consequences of play:

"Prediction 1: The amount of play experience obtained affects the ability to physically and emotionally handle unexpected events and temporary handicaps."

Marek Spinka et al. - Mammalian Play: Training for the Unexpected

Mittwoch, 17. Juli 2019

Self-handicapping in play:

"Larger, older, or more socially dominant animals do not use their full strength in play with smaller, younger, or more socially subordinate animals, and they seem to modify their strength and skill to match that of their partner."

"One consequence of self-handicapping is that dominance distinctions are less evident in play than in other contexts."

"The term 'self-handicapping' denotes that an animal's behavior reduces its probability of achieving its tactical objective in play and thereby prolongs the play interaction. Such behavior appears inconsistent with the statement that animals seek to win playfights. Loizo's dominant chimpanzee initiated a playfight by fleeing from its subordinate; ..."

Robert Fagen - Animal Play Behavior

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"Effort restriction: An animal restricts their strength, skills, or social potential while playing with a partner and does not use their full power during the play interaction. This includes role reversals in which the animal with superior abilities assumes the role of the weaker or losing partner. For instance, a stronger animal allows a weaker one to chase."

Milada Petru et al. - Revisiting Play Elements and Self-Handicapping in Play

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"In social interactions, animals can self-handicap by using positions and movements that impair their competitive ability and enable their playmates to gain the "attack" position. For example, they may inhibit the force of their bites and pushes, and allow themselves to be pushed over and chased, even when they have the ability to harm or dominate a playmate. They may also put themselves at a self-induced disadvantage by playing with larger, stronger, or more experienced play partners, or even with animals of a different species. Because play is only performed when its costs remain low, however, there is an upper limit of unpredictability and loss of control above which animals will not play." 

Marek Spinka et al. - Mammalian Play: Training for the Unexpected 

Dienstag, 16. Juli 2019

"The more profound an insight, as well as the more personal or specific, the more difficult it is likely to be to absorb. ... Because they expand and enhance our imaginations, poetry and art press continually at the boundaries of mystery and incomprehensibility, so that, as audience, we are always faced with the necessity of deciding whether the artist is incomprehensible because of telling us something unusually profound or because of telling us something trivial or wrong in an obscure way."

Richard D. Alexander

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"In sophisticated circles originality and creativity have always been revered. But it has also been recognized that defining true creativity, in art, science, and other realms, as distinct from more waywardness, has been a fundamental difficulty."

Raymond B. Cattell

Differences in Receptivity:

Different people perceive different musical pieces / different pieces of literature / different chunks of knowledge as optimally stimulating.

Sonntag, 14. Juli 2019

Vergleichende Verhaltensforschung:

"Es ist Sache der vergleichenden Verhaltensforschung, [den] über Jahrmillionen erstreckten Differenzierungsprozess der Wahrnehmungs- und Aktionsweisen von Lebewesen darzustellen und zu erläutern."

Friedhart Klix

Grundregel für das Schreiben:

Nur dann schreiben, wenn man etwas mitzuteilen hat. Besser noch: Wenn sich Gedanken einfinden, die regelrecht nach Ausdruck drängen.

Die Auswahl geeigneter Aktivitäten:

"Jedes informationsaufnehmende System ist auf der Suche nach optimaler Verhaltensanpassung und für die Auswahl geeigneter Aktivitäten gezwungen, die aus der Umgebung einströmende Information nach ihrem Gehalt über reale Eigenschaften dieser Umgebung auszuwerten."

Friedhart Klix

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Salopp gesagt: Das sprachliche Denken ermöglicht ein differenzierteres Auswerten der aus der Umwelt einströmenden Information / ein differenzierteres Reagieren auf einströmende Information.

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Verglichen mit anderen Tieren kann der Mensch eine wesentlich größere Vielfalt an Nachrichten aufnehmen und generieren, wesentlich differenziertere Nachrichten empfangen und erzeugen.

The Enlightenment:

Peter Frost:

"The Enlightenment was due only in part to things like the invention of the printing press, the voyages of discovery, and the founding of universities. These were subsidiary causes that resulted from and supported a more fundamental change: a steady increase in the smart fraction of European societies—the proportion of people who enjoy reading, writing and, above all, thinking."

Das Neue und das Vertraute:

Nicht bloß die Beschäftigung mit dem Neuen und Unbekannten kann belohnend sein, auch der Berührung mit dem Gewohnten und Vertrauten haftet zuweilen ein starker Reiz an.

Samstag, 13. Juli 2019

Self-Control:

>Far more than a "just say no" skill, self-control also gives us the gift of "what-if," an inner life that offers us the chance to mentally test out the future without suffering "real world consequences for one's mistakes," ... In other words, self-control is the essence of looking-literally and cognitively-before you leap.<

Maggie Jackson

Das Ichbewusstsein:

~ Das explizite Wissen um die eigene Fähigkeit, innerhalb bestimmter Grenzen das eigene Bewusstsein, das eigene Denken, Wahrnehmen und Handeln, beeinflussen zu können;

Verbal Courtship:

Geoffrey Miller, 1996:

"As human courtship relied more heavily on language, mate choice focused more on the ideas that language expresses. The selection pressures that shaped the evolution of the human mind came increasingly not from the environment testing whether one’s hunting skills were sufficient for survival, but from other minds testing whether one’s ideas were interesting enough to provoke some sexual attraction."

Ästhetische Präferenzen:

An welchen Strukturen, Mustern, Phänomenen, Gegenständen ein Mensch Gefallen findet;

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"the physical universe has structure, and one’s perceptions of this structure, one’s partiality to some of its characteristics and aversion to others, are precisely the elements that make up one’s taste."

Chen Ning Yang

Dienstag, 9. Juli 2019

Fangen spielen mit gleich bleibender Schwierigkeit:

"Immer wenn ich meinen Jagdhund Hussar auf offenen Feldern spazieren führe, spielt er ein recht einfaches Spiel - Prototyp eines kulturell weitverbreiteten Kinderspiels: Fangen. Er rennt mit äußerster Geschwindigkeit um mich herum, lässt die Zunge heraushängen, und seine Augen verfolgen jede meiner Bewegungen aufmerksam. Er fordert mich heraus, ihn zu fangen. Gewöhnlich springe ich auf ihn zu, und wenn ich Glück habe, kann ich ihn berühren. Das Interessante daran ist, wann immer ich müde bin und nur halbherzig zuspringe, rennt Hussar in engeren Kreisen und macht es mir leichter, ihn zu fangen; wenn ich jedoch in guter Verfassung bin und mich anstrengen will, vergrößert er den Durchmesser seiner Kreise. Auf diese Weise ist das Spiel stets gleich schwierig."

Mihaly Csikzentmihalyi

Montag, 1. Juli 2019

Zukunft:

1) das sprachliche Vorausdenken

2) das Anschauen eines Zukunftsszenarios

Analytisches Denken:

~ Die Fähigkeit, ein Problem so zu zergliedern (zu drehen und zu wenden), bis der Kern des Problems sichtbar wird.

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"[D]ie Aufgabe [besteht] im Wesentlichen darin, sehr schnell den Kern eines Problems zu identifizieren ..."

Gerhard Roth

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"Ein intelligenter Mensch ist jemand, der schnell sieht, was Sache ist, und dem ebenso schnell einfällt, was jetzt zu tun ist ..."

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"Verletzungen [im dorsolateralen präfrontalen Kortex] machen einen Patienten typisch unintelligent: Er erkennt nicht mehr, was Sache ist, kann keine Probleme mehr lösen, kapiert nichts und tendiert dazu, stereotyp vorzugehen, auch wenn sich Dinge und Situationen stark ändern."

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"Schlechte Problemlöser erkennen oft nicht, was ein Problem schwierig macht, und können ihre Strategien dem neuen Problem nicht gut anpassen."

Sonntag, 30. Juni 2019

Mentales Zeitreisen / Vorauswandern:

Salopp gesagt: Der Mensch kann zu jedem Zeitpunkt und beliebig oft in die Zukunft wandern. Er kann dort mögliche und unmögliche Zukunftsszenarien erschauen, um anschließend, diese Anschauungen verwertend, die Gegenwart angemessen auf eine gewollte Zukunft hin zu gestalten.

Rewards & Punishments:

"From the cybernetic perspective, rewards are any stimuli that indicate progress toward or attainment of a goal[.]"

"From a cybernetic perspective, punishments are any stimuli that signal definite inability to attain a goal, whereas threats, or cues of punishment, signal a decrease in the probability of attaining a goal."

Colin DeYoung

Facts and Actions:

"Our brains interpret the world primarily as a forum for action and only secondarily as a realm of facts[.]"

Colin DeYoung

Conscious-Psychological Systems:

"The core conscious-psychological mechanism .... is an explicit mental representation of situations that are centered on the self and one’s relationship with other people or one’s access to biological and physical resources that are of significance in the culture and ecology in which the person is situated. The representations are of past, present, or potential future states and might be cast as visual images, in language, or as memories of personal experiences, that is, episodic memories (Tulving, 2002). Of central importance is the ability to create a mental representation of a desired or fantasized state, such as a relationship with another individual, and to compare this to a mental representation of one’s current state, such as the nature of the current relationship with this other individual. These are conscious-psychological representations of present and potential future states that are of personal significance and are the content on which more conscious and effortful reasoning and problem-solving processes are applied (Evans, 2002; Stanovich & West, 2000). The predicted evolved function of these conscious-psychological mechanisms is to generate a fantasy representation of how the world “should” operate, that is, a representation of the world that would be most favorable to the individual’s reproductive (e.g., fantasy of the “perfect” mate; Whissell, 1996) and survival interests (Geary, 1998, 2005). This mental representation serves as a goal to be achieved and is compared against a mental representation of current circumstances. [...] problem solving and reasoning processes serve as the means for simulating social and other behavioral strategies that will reduce the difference between the ideal and actual states. If the behavioral strategies are effective, then the difference between the ideal state and the current state will be reduced and the individual will be one step closer to gaining access to and control of the fantasized social and other resources."

David C. Geary

Despots:

"In most contexts and for most people, the motivation to control is constrained by formal laws, informal social mores (e.g., enforced through gossip; Barkow, 1992), and by affective mechanisms (e.g., guilt) that promote social compromise and reciprocal social relationships (Baron, 1997; Trivers, 1971). For most people, adherence to these laws and mores provides benefits that are sufficient to avoid the risks associated with attempts to achieve, for instance, absolute despotic control (Simon, 1990). Moreover, there are also very likely to be basic differences in the personality (e.g., high on need for power, and low on social affiliation) of despots compared to most other people. Still, consideration of history’s despots allows a peeling away of these constraints and a more direct glimpse at the motivation to control. By definition, despots are individuals who have considerable social power and whose behavior is not typically constrained by affective or social consequences. With the absence of reciprocal cultural mores (i.e., democracy) and a professional police force and military that will suppress despotic behavior, these individuals and their coalitions gained control of the first six human civilizations—ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Aztec and Inca empires, and imperial India and China (Betzig, 1986, 1993). Across these and many other civilizations, the activities of despots were (and still are) centered on diverting the material and social resources of the culture to themselves and to their kin, typically to the detriment of many other people. On the basis of the historical record, they lived in opulence and the men almost always had exclusive sexual access to scores—sometimes thousands—of women (Betzig, 1986)."

David C. Geary

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"As with other traits, it is almost certain there are individual differences in the intensity of the motivation to control and individual differences in the manner in which it is expressed (Pratto, 1996). Nonetheless, gaining some level of control over the activities of daily life, important social relationships, and material resources affords many of the same benefits, albeit on a much smaller scale, as those enjoyed by despots."

Samstag, 29. Juni 2019

The Motivation to Control:

"The evolved function of brain, cognitive, affective, conscious-psychological, and behavioral systems is to enable animals to attempt to gain control of the social (e.g., mates), biological (e.g., prey), and physical (e.g., nesting spots) resources that have tended to covary with survival and reproductive outcomes during the species’ evolutionary history."

David C. Geary

Freitag, 28. Juni 2019

Lernen:

Im Leben geht es darum, relevante Information, wenn man mit ihr konfrontiert wird, rasch zu absorbieren.

Donnerstag, 27. Juni 2019

Interesse, Wissen und Können:

"I recall once inteviewing a young man who tested out as borderline retarded, in the range of IQ 75, to get some idea of his fund of general information. I decided to begin by trying to find out how much he knew about whatever topic he claimed to have the greatest interest in and to know the most about. It was baseball. He frequently went to baseball games with his father or watched them on television, and found them very exciting. Yet when I questioned him about baseball, I discovered that he didn’t know for sure how many players are on a team, couldn’t name all the positions on the team, and had only vague and at times incorrect notions of the rules of the game. He knew the names of three or four players on the local team but didn’t know any of the world’s most famous players or even the names of any of the Big League teams. When I probed other topics in which he claimed an interest—automobiles and gardening—I found that he possessed even less information about these than about baseball. It was evident that his quite low score on the General Information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, on which I had tested him, gave an accurate assessment of his level of general knowledge of the world around him. On the other hand, just out of curiosity, I later put the same baseball questions to a learned professor who, I happened to know, had no interest in any sport whatever. He even had a positive disdain for spectator sports and claimed never to have seen a baseball game in his life. Yet he had no trouble answering the several baseball questions I asked him, and could name three Big League teams and several famous baseball players. Interestingly, he was quite surprised to discover that he knew anything at all about baseball and seemed puzzled as to where he could have learned facts about something he cared nothing about. But conversations with him revealed that he knew a great deal about a great many things, in science, literature, the arts, economics, politics, and world affairs. In his own field he is an acknowledged world authority."

Arthur R. Jensen - Straight Talk About Mental Tests (1981)

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Interesse, allein und für sich genommen, garantiert weder Wissen noch Können. Im Sinne der Investment Theorie entscheiden Interessen darüber mit, in welche Themen und in welches Können der Mensch seine Gedanken investiert. Wie rasch und wirksam eine Person aber generell neue Fähigkeiten und neues Wissen erwerben kann, wird nicht primär von dieser Interessiertheit, sondern von der allgemeinen Effektivität des Denkens bestimmt.

Mittwoch, 26. Juni 2019

Beruf:

In beruflicher Hinsicht sind wohl diejenigen "Gewinner", die einer Tätigkeit nachgehen können, für die sie ein echtes Interesse empfinden.

Dienstag, 25. Juni 2019

Nachdenken:

Das "freie" Miteinander-in-Beziehung-Setzen unterschiedlicher Bewusstseinsinhalte.

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Menschen unterscheiden sich darin, wie effektiv sie unterschiedliche Bewusstseinsinhalte miteinander verknüpfen können. D.h. dahingehend, mit welcher Geschwindigkeit / mit welcher Wirksamkeit sich solche Verknüpfungsvorgänge in ihnen ereignen.

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Filterschwäche: Wenn das Bewusstsein generell vieles gleichzeitig mit Aufmerksamkeit belichtet.

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Wenn man sagt: "Ein Mensch schöpft sein Erkennen aus dem inneren Erleben.", so meint man hiermit, dass er die Fähigkeit, gleichzeitig eine große Anzahl ehemaliger Bewusstseinsinhalte (diffus) auszuleuchten, zur Erkenntnisgenerierung heranzieht. Oder anders: Intuition lässt sich als das Vermögen verstehen, eine große Anzahl ehemaliger Bewusstseinsinhalte gleichzeitig auszuwerten. Unterschiedliche Menschen ziehen dieses Können in sehr unterschiedlichen Ausmaßen zur Problemlösung heran.

Montag, 24. Juni 2019

Das Vorbewusste:

"Das Vorbewusste umfasst alle Inhalte, die einmal bewusst waren und aktuell unbewusst sind, oft aber schnell und zum Teil gezielt ins Bewusstsein geholt werden können, zum Beispiel durch aktives Erinnern oder aufgrund bestimmter Hinweisreize."

"Das Vorbewusste stellt ... einen riesigen Vorrat an möglichen Bewusstseinsinhalten dar[.]"

Gerhard Roth - Persönlichkeit, Entscheidung und Verhalten (2015)

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Warum treten in einer gegebenen Situation gerade bestimmte Gedanken ins Bewusstsein, nicht aber andere?

Interessant ist, dass es sich in vielen Fällen kaum vorhersagen lässt, welche Gedanken in einer gegebenen Situation ins Bewusstsein treten werden. Z.B. bei Gesprächen: Mit unterschiedlichen Personen ergeben sich scheinbar von allein völlig unterschiedliche Gespräche über sehr unterschiedliche Themen, eben auch dann, wenn nie im Vorhinein nachgesonnen wurde, was gerade mit dieser Person besprochen werden könnte. Bei manchen Gesprächspartnern nimmt man vergangene Gesprächsfäden wieder und wieder auf. Bei anderen ergeben sich kaum Anknüpfungspunkte an vorherige Gespräche, usw.

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Das Reich möglicher Bewusstseinsinhalte: Was da überhaupt von innen herauf im eigenen Bewusstsein auftauchen kann. - Nicht exklusive in der Form des Wiederauftauchens, sondern auch als Neukombination ehemaliger Bewusstseinsinhalte.

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Zeit verbringen mit sich selbst: Abwarten, welche Bewusstseinsinhalte (Gedanken, Gefühle, Wünsche, etc.) erscheinen werden. Versus dem Zeit verbringen mit äußeren Gegenständen / der stärkeren Fokussierung nach außen.

Sonntag, 23. Juni 2019

Training:

Immer wieder neue Aufgaben lösen, die etwas schwieriger zu lösen sind, als ähnliche bereits gelöste Aufgaben.

Samstag, 22. Juni 2019

"Only after Bruckner heard the music of Wagner, in his late thirties, did he begin to compose symphonies."

Ellen Winner - Gifted Children

The triviality of play:

Peter Gray - Free to Learn:

"People often think of play as frivolous or trivial, and they are right. As I have explained, play is activity conducted for its own sake rather than to achieve serious real-world goals such as food, money, praise, escape from a tiger, or an addition to one’s résumé."

"Play serves the serious purpose of education, but the player is not deliberately educating himself or herself. The player is playing for fun; education is a by-product. If the player were playing for a serious purpose, it would no longer be play and much of the educative power would be lost."

"Fear and concerns about evaluation tend to freeze the mind and body into rigid frames, suitable for carrying out well-learned habitual activities but not for learning or thinking about anything new. In the absence of concern about failure and others’ judgments, children at play can devote all their attention to the skills at which they are playing."

Play as an indicator of psychological and physical well-being:

"In general, play is an indicator of psychological and physical well-being (Held & Spinka, 2011). It is usually the first activity to disappear if an individual is stressed, anxious, hungry or ill."

Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation
Bateson & Martin

Shame and Guilt:

Anthony Stevens, John Price:

"Shame is experienced when one fails to measure up to the standards of the group; guilt is suffered when one breaks the rules."

Competition by attraction:

Anthony Stevens, John Price:

"With the evolution of competition by attraction, a new capacity for self-assessment emerged, which Gilbert (1989) has called social attention holding potential or SAHP. ... Attractive people (people with high SAHP) are granted prestige (the systemic correlate of SAHP). They assume leadership roles and have access to more resources than their less successful competitors."
Anthony Stevens, John Price:

"Whereas attachment theory proposes that depression is an adaptive response to losing an attachment figure and conceiving of oneself as unlovable, rank theory proposes that depression is an adaptive response to losing rank and conceiving of oneself as a loser. The adaptive function of the depression, according to rank theory, is to facilitate losing and to promote accommodation to the fact that one has lost. In other words, the depressive state evolved to promote the acceptance of the subordinate role and the loss of resources which can only be secured by holding higher rank in the dominance hierarchy."
Anthony Stevens, John Price:

"a depressive reaction to loss of status enables the demoted individual to adapt passively to the lower rank, thus avoiding further attack from the more powerful individual who has displaced him or her."

Vertebrate strategies for dealing with adversity:

Anthony Stevens, John Price:

"[There are] two fundamental vertebrate strategies for dealing with adversity: one is to attack, to escalate the action, to ‘go for it’ with the determination to ‘win at all costs’ (the escalating or winning strategy); the other is to yield, to back off or submit, to de-escalate, to ‘cut one’s losses’ (the de-escalating or losing strategy)."

The surprising science of alpha males | Frans de Waal

Donnerstag, 20. Juni 2019

Scientific discoveries:

"Science is even more unpredictable than history. Every important discovery in science is by definition unpredictable. If it were predictable, it would not be an important discovery. The purpose of science is to create opportunities for unpredictable things to happen. When nature does something unexpected, we learn something about how nature works."

Freeman Dyson

Models & Theories:

"On well-trodden ground we build theories. On the half-explored frontiers we build models."

Freeman Dyson

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"As a scientist I make a sharp distinction between models and theories. A theory is a construction, built out of logic and mathematics, that is supposed to describe the actual universe that we live in. A model is a construction that describes a much simpler universe, including some features of the actual universe and neglecting others."
"Verne and Wells both failed to foresee some of the most basic aspects of twentieth-century life: the dominance of the private automobile over other means of transportation, the ubiquity of telephones and personal computers ... Their most basic mistake was their belief that technology would always become bigger and bigger rather than smaller and smaller."

Freeman Dyson

Mittwoch, 19. Juni 2019

Verständnis und Sprache:

A) Wie sehr jemand in der Lage ist, etwas rasch zu verstehen;

B) Wie sehr jemand in der Lage ist, Verstandenes zu verbalisieren;

Sonntag, 16. Juni 2019

Unzufriedenheit:

"Im Leben (absolut) zufrieden zu sein, wäre tatlose Ruhe und Stillstand der Triebfedern[.]"

Immanuel Kant

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"Der Schmerz ist der Stachel der Tätigkeit und in dieser fühlen wir allererst unser Leben[.]"

Samstag, 15. Juni 2019

Wissenserwerb:

A) Wissenserwerb aus einem Zwang heraus

B) Wissenserwerb aus Interesse

Vortragende:

A) Vortragende, die dem Erkenntniswunsch des Zuhörers freundlich gesonnen sind;

B) Vortragende, die dem Erkenntniswunsch des Zuhörers nicht freundlich gesonnen sind;

Montag, 10. Juni 2019

"Blushing is the most peculiar and the most human of all expressions."

Charles Darwin
"and you know, people are kinda fascinated by that idea, that's why you watch America's Got Talent ...  You never see narcissism in its purer forms than you see it when you watch people who display an absolute lack of talent and become homicidal when someone dares point it out. Accusatory and homicidal, instantly, it's really something."

Jordan Peterson

Samstag, 8. Juni 2019

Freiheitserleben:

Die Einengung im Denken, Wahrnehmen, Handeln und Fühlen für Zeitspannen oder Stunden hinter sich lassen;

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Im Sinne einer Erhebung: das vorübergehende Heraustreten aus einer Enge;

Montag, 3. Juni 2019

Wahrheitserleben:

Momente / Stunden, in denen wir den Wert einer Aussage, eines Gedankens, eines Gedankengangs erleben.

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Das Vermögen, ein Erkennen oder eine Information als besonders wert- und bedeutungsvoll zu erleben;

Sonntag, 2. Juni 2019

"part of the reason that people want to tear things down is so that they don't have anything to contrast themselves against and to feel bad."

Jordan Peterson

Samstag, 1. Juni 2019

Effective Fighters:

"A consistent theme in the combat-behavior literature is that one never knows who is going to be an effective soldier until the shooting starts, and the identity if the good fighters often turns out to be a surprise."

Kingsley R. Browne

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"In his book Fighting Spirit, F. M. Richardson commented that >soldiers know from experience that it is so difficult as to be well-nigh impossible to foretell which men will do well in a battle and which will fail.<"

Donnerstag, 30. Mai 2019

Mittwoch, 29. Mai 2019

Aggression:

"The most commonly used and perhaps most heuristically valuable classification of aggression is that of premeditated versus impulsive aggression. The subtype of premeditated aggression, also termed instrumental, proactive, or predatory aggression (Barratt and Felthous, 2003; Meloy, 2006), is characterized by a goal-oriented, planned, and callous pattern of aggressive behavior not driven by autonomic arousal. The impulsive subtype of aggression, also named reactive or affective aggression, is defined as an unplanned and emotionally driven act, accompanied by high levels of autonomic arousal, and is often precipitated by provocation associated with negative emotionality (Barratt et al., 1999; Haden et al., 2008)."

[Source]

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"Reactive aggression is “hot” aggression, which is displayed in response to some form of provocation. It is characterized by impulsive, emotion-laden aggressive behavior and is motivated and driven by the primary goal of harming the perceived provocateur. Instrumental aggression, on the other hand, is “cold” aggression which is characterized by unemotional, planned and goal-directed aggressive behavior. Instrumental aggression is a means to an end rather than being an end in itself and is driven by a desire for a gain of some sort (Dodge 1991; Cornell et al, 1996; Raine et al, 2006; Fontaine, 2007)."

[Source]

Dienstag, 28. Mai 2019

Agreeableness vs. antagonism:

  • Trust (forgiving) 
  • Straightforwardness (not demanding) 
  • Altruism (warm) 
  • Compliance (not stubborn) 
  • Modesty (not show-off) 
  • Tender-mindedness (sympathetic) 

Warmth-Coldness:

Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People
Ryan L. Boyd et al.

"There are two primary ways in which people differ in their interpersonal behavior. Some people are more dominant whereas others are more submissive (Wiggins & Trapnell, 1996). Additionally, some people are warm whereas others are cold (Wiggins & Trapnell, 1996). These are independent dimensions of personality and social behavior (Locke, 2011; Moskowitz, 2010). People want to know about the warmth-coldness of others first and foremost before interacting with them (Hogan, 1996). There are good reasons for possessing this knowledge. The warmth-coldness dimension is a primary predictor of relationship quality (Markey & Markey, 2007), personality disorders (Locke, 2006), aggressive behavior (Martin, Watson, & Wan, 2000), criminality (Edens, 2009), and lack of social support (Smith, Traupman, Uchino, & Berg, 2010).

Underlying warmth-coldness, we suggest, is a basic stance toward others that is socially egocentric (cold individuals) versus not (warm individuals). For example, cold individuals value autonomy to a greater extent, whereas warm individuals value nurturance to a greater extent (Wiggins & Broughton, 1991). Cold individuals view others as less trustworthy, whereas warm individuals view others as more trustworthy (Moskowitz, 2010). Cold individuals often seek to isolate the self from others, whereas warm individuals are, if anything, sometimes too dependent on others and motivated to please them (Strack & Lorr, 1994; Wiggins & Pincus, 1989)."

"A growing literature explores the emotion that Haidt and colleagues (Haidt 2000, 2003a, b; Keltner and Haidt 2003; Algoe and Haidt 2009) termed elevation, a positive, uplifting feeling, elicited by witnessing exemplary prosocial behavior, that motivates increased prosociality in the observer (reviewed in Thomson and Siegel 2017; Pohling and Diessner 2016)."

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"the prosocial individual might herself constitute a prospective cooperative partner. Elevation may function completely or partially to establish a dyadic partnership with the exemplar."

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"In general, individuals who behave in a highly prosocial manner when surrounded by selfish individuals will not persist for long, as costly exploitation without offsetting benefits will force them to desist, leave or be weakened to the point of being unable to continue acting prosocially."

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"a key question for future research will be to determine whether, on the one hand, diminished elevation occurs because antisociality elicits a negatively-valenced emotion, such as moral outrage or moral disgust (see Haidt 2000), that subserves the punishment of antisocial others and competes with elevation, or, on the other hand, observing antisociality exercises a direct depressive effect on elevation elicitation."

Sonntag, 26. Mai 2019

Contempt:

Contempt and disgust: the emotions of disrespect
Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi

>Whereas anger, resentment and indignation are focused on the target's specific misbehavior, moral contempt (as well as basic contempt) is primarily directed to the person because of his or her “badbeing” (e.g., Bell, 2013). As remarked by Fischer (2011, p. 81), “the attribution of blame is dispositional in the case of contempt, and situational in the case of anger”. When one experiences anger (as well as resentment or indignation) against somebody, one can still believe that “it is not like him/her” to behave in that way. Conversely, the contemner views the target's behavior as a piece of evidence of the latter's ugly dispositions. The target's specific action is viewed as “like him/her”.<

>As pointed out by Fischer (2011, p. 81), “we think we can still influence the ones we are angry at, whereas we have given up this hope in the case of contempt”. Unlike contempt, anger typically implies perceived control over the situation (e.g., Lerner & Tiedens, 2006).<

Sexual Disgust:

Microbes, Mating, and Morality - Joshua M. Tybur et al.:

"we suggest that sexual disgust is an evolved solution to the adaptive problem of avoiding biologically costly mates and sexual behaviors (see also Fessler & Navarrete, 2003).

Over evolutionary history, one’s choice of sexual partners and behaviors carried significant reproductive consequences because individuals varied in qualities impacting offspring survival and reproduction. Whereas certain sexual partners increased the probability of producing multiple, healthy offspring, others potentially jeopardized one’s reproductive success. Given this selection pressure, natural selection likely favored mechanisms that were able to evaluate potential partners along dimensions relevant to reproductive success, and systems that motivated pursuit (e.g., lust) or avoidance (e.g., disgust) accordingly.

Importantly, potential sexual partners can vary in quality along two broad dimensions: intrinsic quality and genetic compatibility (Jennions & Petrie, 2000; Neff & Pitcher, 2005). A mate’s intrinsic quality is reflected in features that influence objective physical attractiveness, regardless of genetic compatibility. Such features include body symmetry, facial attractiveness, and body shape (e.g., Grammer, Fink, Moller, & Thornhill, 2003; Singh, 1993; Thornhill & Gangestad, 1993, 2006) – dimensions that males and females use to assess attractiveness.

Genetic compatibility affects mate suitability in a more relative manner. A potential partner’s genetic similarity to oneself – rather than intrinsically low genetic quality – can reduce reproductive success. Compatibility can be influenced by factors such as major histocompatibility complex similarity (Penn & Potts, 1999) and genetic relatedness. For instance, though one’s close kin (e.g., siblings, parents, offspring) might possess many attributes desirable in a mate (i.e., have high intrinsic mate quality), they are not suitable mating partners because close inbreeding increases the probability of producing less healthy offspring (Bittles & Neel, 1994; Charleswoth & Charlesworth, 1999; Haig, 1999).

Individuals displaying cues for low intrinsic quality or low compatibility are likely to be poor mate choices, and should thus be avoided as sexual partners. Disgust is an emotion wellsuited to perform this function. The disgust that motivates sexual avoidance, however, is distinct from the disgust motivating pathogen avoidance, not only with respect to the sets of information required to assess mate suitability versus parasite presence, but also in regards to the nature of the optimal avoidance behaviors. Whereas pathogen detection relies on cues such as puss and foul odor, the assessment of mate suitability depends on a host of other cues described above – many of which are not relevant to proximal pathogen avoidance (e.g., seeing one’s mother care for a newborn, a cue to siblingship; Lieberman et al., 2007). Further, whereas individuals and objects displaying cues for communicable infection should motivate general avoidance, an individual deemed an unsuitable mating partner should motivate avoidance specifically within the context of mating, leaving open the possibility for other categories of social interactions (e.g., nepotism, friendship, social exchange, or group membership).
 
In sum, avoiding sexual partners and behaviors potentially jeopardizing one’s reproductive success constitutes a separate adaptive problem from pathogen avoidance and requires different systems for assessing the risks associated with sex. Sexual disgust, we argue, is specifically well suited to perform the function of avoiding reproductively costly sexual behaviors, narrowing the pool of sexual behaviors and partners to those likely to contribute to the production of healthy viable offspring." 

Moral Disgust:

Microbes, Mating, and Morality - Joshua M. Tybur et al.:


"A third domain of disgust pertains to social transgressions. When asked to generate a list of things that disgust them, people often report anti-social behaviors alongside items and acts that we would categorize as pathogen or sexual disgust (Haidt et al., 1994; Nabi, 2002). These social transgressions broadly include non-normative, often anti-social activities such as lying, cheating, and stealing that harm others directly and/or impose diffuse costs on one’s social group. For example, a sample of Australian psychology students who read vignettes about crimes involving drug trafficking, conning, fraud, or theft were more likely to form disgust words in a word-stem completion task than controls (Jones & Fitness, 2008). And the association between such anti-social behaviors and disgust is not exclusive to Western, English speaking cultures. Haidt et al. (1997) report that, when asked to generate a list of disgust elicitors, a Hebrew speaking woman from Israel cited politicians, a Japanese speaking student from Hiroshima cited verbal abuse, and an English speaking student from Chicago cited child abuse. 

However, some have argued that the term disgust is used to describe social transgressions merely for greater rhetorical effect, and actual responses to such acts may not be related to disgust at all (e.g., Bloom, 2004; Nabi, 2002). This hypothesis can be tested by examining whether pathogen-related acts and common socio-moral violations such as lying, cheating, and stealing activate common neural regions associated with the emotion disgust. Recent fMRI investigations show they do (Moll et al., 2005; Schaich Borg, Lieberman, & Kiehl, 2008). For instance, in Schaich Borg et al. (2008), conjunction analyses revealed that pathogen related acts, incestuous acts, and socio-moral violations all activate a network of brain regions previously reported to be associated with disgust (e.g., the globis pallidus, putamen, caudate head, and amygdala). Behavioral studies also indicate disgust is linked with moral judgments (e.g., Wheatley & Haidt, 2005; Marzillier & Davey, 2004) further suggesting that disgust is not just used metaphorically or rhetorically to describe social transgressions, but instead reflects a response toward multiple elicitors including infection, incest, and iniquity. 

From an evolutionary perspective, avoiding interactions with other individuals who imposed costs on oneself or on members of one’s social network would have been beneficial. Within the social arena, other individuals are capable of inflicting costs in a number of ways; in addition to lying, cheating, and stealing, group members can injure, kill, rape, free ride, denigrate, and cuckold. Such behaviors inflict costs directly, and they can disrupt cooperative relationships, social networks, and group cohesion (Cottrell & Neuberg, 2005). Individuals capable of avoiding those whose actions regularly registered as large net costs would have fared better than those who did not discriminate along this dimension. 

In addition to being elicited by different cues than pathogen and sexual disgust, moral disgust motivates a different behavioral strategy. Whereas pathogen disgust motivates proximal avoidance of perceived infection risks, and sexual disgust motivates avoidance of individuals within the specific context of sexual interactions, moral disgust motivates avoidance of social relationships with norm-violating individuals. As recent research indicates, moral disgust might also underlie motivations to punish norm-violating third parties (e.g., Kurzban, DeScioli, & O’Brien, 2007)."

Samstag, 25. Mai 2019

"Menschen, die im gesellschaftlichen Leben wenig Chancen haben zu reüssieren, bauen sich erstaunliche Ersatzpyramiden, um sich an deren Spitze setzen zu können, etwa als >König< der Taubenzüchter oder Bierfilzsammler."

Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt

Dienstag, 21. Mai 2019

Metatraits:

Colin G. DeYoung:

Stability - cybernetic function:
Protection of goals, interpretations, and strategies from disruption by impulses.
(negative pole: unstable)

Plasticity - cybernetic function:
Exploration: creation of new goals, interpretations, and strategies.
(negative pole: rigid)

Samstag, 18. Mai 2019

The survival value of conscious experience:

"The survival value of conscious experience lies in the provision of a mechanism to take a second look (one or two hundreds of milliseconds after on-line behavioural responding becomes possible) at something which, in the immediacy of action, has just gone wrong. The wrongness can take the form of an error in a motor program, or simply a departure from the expected state of the environment: something unexpected happens, or something that should have happened does not. The error signal can be specific (this particular subgoal in a motor program has not been reached, or this particular element in the environment has undergone unexpected change); or it can be highly generalised, as in the case of pain[.] Pain, indeed, may reflect a very early stage in the evolution of the error detection mechanism, providing as it does an undifferentiated and universal signal of important (potentially tissue-damaging) error."

Jeffrey Gray - Consciousness