Donnerstag, 4. Juni 2020

Erkennen:

Ich beobachte die Bedingungen A und das Ereignis B und vermute: "Wenn A, dann B";

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Ich weiß um die Regel "Wenn A, dann B" und beobachte A, also ...

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Wenn-Dann-Regeln allgemein:

Wenn ein Gegenstand diese oder jene Merkmale hat, dann ist es eine Zitrone.

Wenn ein Mensch diese oder jene Dinge sagt, dann ist er gescheit oder wissend.

Wenn ein Mensch diese oder jene Dinge tut, dann ist er ein Bösewicht.

Etcetera ...

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Zielstrebiges Verhalten:

Wenn ich das und jenes tue, dann gelange ich zum Ziel.

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"Logik" als Handwerk:

Das bewusste Herausarbeiten von Wenn-Dann-Regeln;

Coalitional Value Theory:

Überspitzt: "Selbstwert" im Sinne von "Wert als Freund" oder "Wert als Partner"; Götter oder Helden, in dem Sinne, sind "ultimative" Partner, d.h. Personen, die maximale Leistungen oder Hilfeleistungen erbringen oder erbringen können;

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Bo Winegard et al.:

"[Humans] are equipped with mental mechanisms that allow them to assess the coalitional value (marginal productive value of a person to a group of individuals) of themselves and others and to respond appropriately;"

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"Tomasello and colleagues (Tomasello 2016; Tomasello et al. 2012) have forwarded an account of the evolutionary progression of human cooperation and morality that is germane. According to their account, the first important step on the path to human “super sociality” was the development of obligate collaborate foraging (Tomasello et al. 2012). At that stage, humans were compelled to collaborate with partners to collect the calories necessary to sustain themselves. Without such partners, humans would have perished (or have been outcompeted by other groups of humans) (see also the Stag Hunt, Skyrms 2001). This means that each human had a stake in his or her partners; they benefited if their partner was healthy and good at hunting/collecting calories, and they were hurt if their partner got sick or was bad at hunting/collecting calories. This is a species of interdependency and is a more powerful system of cooperation than reciprocal altruism because there is no time delay between helpful favors (Trivers 1971)."

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"The primary construct of the CVT is a mental gauge that estimates and tracks one’s own and others’ values to the coalition. For simplicity, we will call this a coalitional value gauge (gauge for evaluating self and for evaluating others). The gauge that evaluates the self’s coalitional value is likely strongly related to what social psychologists have traditionally called self-esteem (e.g., Mahadevan et al. 2018). The information from the gauge is fed into a number of other mental systems, causing a variety of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses. For example, if the gauge calculated that another person in one’s coalition has higher value than one’s self, then the gauge, through interactions with other systems, would produce predictable emotional and cognitive responses such as awe, admiration, deference, increased blood pressure, reverence, visual attention, etc. (Keltner and Haidt 2003; Long et al. 1982). Of course, these aspirational and positive emotions might be tinged with envy and bitterness, especially if the high-status person is rude or dismissive (Buss 2001). If, on the other hand, the gauge calculated that another person was lower, then it would produce assertion, contempt, erect posture, expected subordination, etc. These responses are likely heightened in coalitionally relevant contexts."

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"Men on a National Football League (NFL) team, for example, probably would not pay much attention to signals of intelligence, but they would pay attention to signals of pain tolerance, strength, and coordination (Cook 2013). On the other hand, a psychology department would pay attention to signals of intelligence while assiduously ignoring signals of strength and pain tolerance[.]"

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"For those of us who will never achieve great status (high coalitional value), it is a satisfying recompense that natural selection made deferring to heroes almost as rewarding as being them."

Mittwoch, 3. Juni 2020

A writer's notebook:

Stephen King:

"I think a writer's notebook is the best way in the world to immortalize bad ideas. My idea about a good idea is one that sticks around and sticks around and sticks around. It's like if you were to put bread crumbs in a strainer and shake it, which is what the passage of time is for me. It's like shaking a strainer. All this stuff that's not very big and not very important just kind of dissolves and falls out. But the good stuff stays, you know, the big pieces stay."

To go all-in:

Jordan Peterson:

"The same thing happens when you get married: if you think you might leave then you're not married. There are some games you don't get to play unless you're all-in."

Do the Real Thing:


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"Or consider another person I spoke with who wanted to get better at writing music. He had come up with a complex analysis project. He was going to do a deep dive into past hits, figuring out what made them great. In all this complexity he ignored the obvious, real thing he should be doing: writing more songs. When I asked how many he had written so far, he said it was just three."

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"When you examine case studies of people who have had major accomplishments, you expect there to be some trick or shortcut. Some amazing technique they used that others weren’t clever enough to recognize.

More often, however, the strategy used is dead simple: doing the real thing."

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"Real things require real difficulty. Fake stuff never does.

This doesn’t mean fake work is effortless. Instead, pretend activity always has just enough difficulty to allow you to trick yourself into thinking you’re doing something that matters. But, conveniently, it avoids any of the truly difficult things the real situation would create.

Consider the examples above. My friend’s music analysis project is definitely a lot of work. However, it conveniently misses the real frustration and challenge of struggling to write your own songs. It requires effort, but always in a way that feels doable and safe. Listening to language learning podcasts for hours is mildly strenuous. She can feel like she’s doing “something” even though it probably won’t prepare her for working in French.

Real things have risk. They have the possibility of failure. They have frustration. They force you to confront the possibility that maybe you just aren’t good enough.

Fake activity is great for making yourself feel better, but lousy for actual results."

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"Fill your days with enough fake activity, and you get into the situation where you fail to make meaningful progress on any of your goals, but still feel exhausted at the end of the day."

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"There’s a feeling that goes along with real work. It’s not always positive. It often has fear, frustration or the sense that maybe you’ve bit off more than you can chew.

But doing the real thing matters. Days wasted on fake activity may keep you busy, but they never seem to go anywhere. A life spent on real work may not always be the easiest or most entertaining, but it’s the one that adds up in the end."

The All-Important Difference Between Effort and Effectiveness


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"The hard way can often still be trodden with a slow and patient pace. But walk a fake path and you end up going nowhere."