Mittwoch, 29. Oktober 2014

Mental Sex Differences - Some Accurate Stereotypes:

Co-ed Combat (Amazon)
Kingsley Browne, 2007



























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Samstag, 25. Oktober 2014

Cognitive Human Capital and Economic Growth in the 21st Century

Cognitive Human Capital and  Economic Growth in the 21st Century
Gerhard Meisenberg (2014)


Abstract


This chapter explores the interdependency between economic growth and cognitive human capital, which is also described as cognitive skills or intelligence and is measured either as performance in scholastic achievement tests or IQ. It shows that unlike the mere amount of schooling, intelligence has been a robust predictor of economic growth in the recent past. Plausible mediators of the intelligence effect include greater labor productivity, better institutions, more competent management, lower fertility, and wider time horizons. 
Based on the observation of secular gains in intelligence that have become known as Flynn effects, a theory of economic growth is developed that is based on the trans-generational reinforcement between rising intelligence and economic, technological and institutional advances. It provides a parsimonious explanation for the sustained nature of economic growth since the Industrial Revolution, and a conceptual framework for more specific theories and hypotheses.
The chapter arrives at projections of economic growth for the first half of the 21st century that are based on the empiric relationship between current prosperity, human capital, and economic growth. Longer-term predictions are based on our knowledge of the conditions that are required for continued Flynn effects, and of genetic limits to human cognitive development. The conclusion is that in most countries of Europe and North America, the limits of cognitive growth are being approached or have been reached already by the younger generation. There are ongoing Flynn effects in developing countries today. These countries are now reducing the cognitive gaps separating them from the developed countries, but most of them are expected to reach their cognitive limits before the end of the 21st century. Long-term developments after the end of the Flynn effect will be driven primarily by demographic trends. Without major changes in demographic behavior, intelligence is predicted to eventually decline slowly, ending economic growth in most parts of the world within the next 3 to 4 generations.

[via E. Kirkegaard]

Donnerstag, 23. Oktober 2014

Goodness and Speed of Response

The Abilities of Man - Their Nature and Measurement
Chapter XIV - Goodness and Speed of Response | p. 243 - 258
Charles Spearman (1927)


The Chapter's Conclusion:

On the whole, ..., g has shown itself to measure a factor both in goodness and in speed of cognitive process. Such "goodness" is here taken as at bottom indicating clearness. The connection between the goodness and the speed is that of being inter-changeable. If the conditions of the case are such as to eliminate the influence of speed, then g measures goodness, and vice versa. When - as is most usual - both influences are in play, then g measures the efficiency compounded of both. In agreement with this complete inter-changeability between goodness and speed of response, neither of them constitutes a group factor or produces specific correlation. The almost unanimous view that some persons are on the whole unable to think quickly and yet are quite able to think clearly would seem to be a most grave error.

Dienstag, 14. Oktober 2014

Some new papers:

Cognitive ability and epistemic rationality: A study in Nigeria and Germany
Heiner Rindermann, Luisa Falkenhayn, Antonia E.E. Baumeister


Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being and Their Relationships with Gender Equality
Gerhard Meisenberg, Michael A. Woodley


Using a prison sample to assess the association between the general factor of personality and general intelligence
Curtis S. Dunkel, Dimitri van der Linden, Kevin M. Beaver, Michael A. Woodley


The cognitive ecology of Mexico: Climatic and socio-cultural effects on life history strategies and cognitive abilities
Tomás Cabeza de Baca, Aurelio José Figueredo
Intelligence (Nov-Dec 2014)


Are adoption gains on the g factor? A meta-analysis
Jan te Nijenhuis, Birthe Jongeneel-Grimen, Elijah L. Armstrong
Personality and Individual Differences (Jan 2015)

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Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences - Special Issue about the Behavioral Immune System (Oct 2014)

Freitag, 10. Oktober 2014

Physical attractiveness as a phenotypic marker of health: an assessment using a nationally representative sample of American adults

Physical attractiveness as a phenotypic marker of health: an assessment using a nationally representative sample of American adults
Joseph L. Nedelec, Kevin M. Beaver (Nov 2014)
Evolution & Human Behavior | pdf - via JayMan |


Abstract

Evolutionary explanations regarding the differential preference for particular traits hold that preferences arose due to traits' association with increased potential for reproductive fitness. Assessments of physical attractiveness have been shown to be related to perceived and measured levels of health, an important fitness-related trait. Despite the robust association between physical attractiveness and health observed in the extant literature, a number of theoretical and methodological concerns remain. Specifically, the research in this area possesses a lack of specificity in terms of measures of health, a reliance on artificial social interactions in assessing physical attractiveness, and a relatively infrequent use of non-student samples and leaves unaddressed the confounding effects of raters of attractiveness. Using these concerns as a springboard, the current study employed data from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (N ≈ 15,000; aged 25 to 34 years) to assess the relationship between physical attractiveness and various specific and overall measures of health. Logistic and OLS regression models illustrated a robust association between physical attractiveness and various measures of health, controlling for a variety of confounding factors. In sum, the more attractive a respondent was rated, the less likely he or she was to report being diagnosed with a wide range of chronic diseases and neuropsychological disorders. Importantly, this finding was observed for both sexes. These analyses provide further support for physical attractiveness as a phenotypic marker of health. The findings are discussed in reference to evolutionary theory, and the limitations of the study and future research suggestions are also addressed.





The slow and fast life histories of early birds and night owls: Their future- or present-orientation accounts for their sexually monogamous or promiscuous tendencies

The slow and fast life histories of early birds and night owls: Their future- or present-orientation accounts for their sexually monogamous or promiscuous tendencies
Davide Ponzi, Andrea Henry, Konrad Kubicki, Nora Nickels, M. Claire Wilson, Dario Maestripieri (Oct 2014)
Evolution and Human Behavior

Abstract

In this study we tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in morningness-eveningness (i.e., chronotype) is associated with variation in a composite measure of life history (the mini-K) such that morning-types (i.e., early birds) exhibit traits typically associated with slow life histories while evening-types (i.e., night owls) exhibit traits typically associated with fast life histories. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that time perspective may be one of the psychological mechanisms mediating the relationship between chronotype and socio-sexuality. Study participants were 95 heterosexual young men, most of whom were university students. Chronotype, life-history traits, socio-sexuality, and time perspective were assessed with well-established self-report measures. Variations in chronotype and in life-history traits were significantly associated in the direction predicted by our hypothesis. Consistent with our second hypothesis, time perspective emerged as a significant mediator of the association between chronotype and socio-sexuality so that the future orientation of morning-types was associated with their long-term mating orientation and relatively low sexual experience, while the present orientation of evening-types was associated with their short-term mating orientation and greater sexual experience. Our study provides the first evidence that variation in chronotype may be adaptive and elucidates one of the psychological mechanisms underlying the life history and reproductive strategies of male early birds and night owls.