Freitag, 28. November 2014

Culture and state boredom: A comparison between European Canadians and Chinese

Culture and state boredom: A comparison between European Canadians and Chinese
Andy H. Ng, Yong Liu, Jian-zhi Chen, John D. Eastwood
Personality and Individual Differences (March 2015)


Highlights

We adapt the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS) to Chinese.
We revise the MSBS by eliminating differentially functioning items.
European Canadians (vs. Chinese) are more likely to experience state boredom.
Results are consistent with theorizing on cultural differences in ideal affect.

Abstract

The primary goal of the present research was to examine cross-cultural validity of the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS) by comparing a European Canadian sample and a Chinese sample. The secondary goal was to explore cross-cultural differences in the actual experience of boredom between European Canadian and Chinese participants when they completed a psychological survey. After establishing cross-cultural validity of the MSBS by eliminating items that functioned differentially across the two cultural groups, we found that European Canadians scored higher on the MSBS than did Chinese. Results are consistent with the literature on cultural differences in ideal affect, such that European North Americans (vs. East Asians) tend to value high-arousal positive affects (e.g., excitement) more, and low-arousal positive affect less (Tsai, Knutson, & Fung, 2006).

[See also: Do Chinese people get bored less easily? - Peter Frost]

Dienstag, 25. November 2014

Compassion, Pride, and Social Intuitions of Self-Other Similarity

Compassion, Pride, and Social Intuitions of Self-Other Similarity
Christopher Oveis, E. J. Horberg and Dacher Keltner (2010)


Abstract

Compassion and pride serve contrasting social functions: Compassion motivates care-taking behavior, whereas pride enables the signaling and negotiation of rank within social hierarchies. Across 3 studies, compassion was associated with increased perceived self-other similarity, particularly to weak or vulnerable others. In contrast, pride was associated with an enhanced sense of similarity to strong others, and a decreased sense of similarity to weak others. These findings were obtained using trait measures (Study 1) and experimental inductions (Studies 2 and 3) of compassion and pride, examining the sense of similarity to strong or weak groups (Studies 1 and 2) and unfamiliar individuals (Study 3). The influences of compassion and pride on perceived self-other similarity could not be accounted for by positive mood, nor was this effect constrained by the ingroup status of the target group or individual. Discussion focuses on the contributions these findings make to an understanding of compassion and pride.

Freitag, 21. November 2014

Mental Exercises


(A) think about something 
(B) try to find out if your thoughts match reality / try to test your thoughts


(A) observe something (or remember an observation)
(B) try to interpret / to understand the observed phenomenon


“Mental laziness” leads to a neglect of step (B). A mental lazy person doesn't think much about the phenomena he/she sees and does not care much if his/her thoughts are closely related to reality or not.

Donnerstag, 20. November 2014

Why is thinking necessary?

Thinking allows us to spot order (rules, laws, principles, relationships, patterns, redundancies, ...), to spot regularities and irregularities in our external and internal environment.

What does an IQ-test measure?

How effectively someone processes information. How fast and clear someone thinks. (in comparison to others) Zu deutsch: die Denkbegabung einer bestimmten Testperson.