Freitag, 19. Februar 2016

"Ginge es darum, durch nicht mehr als drei Angaben eine möglichst reichhaltige Information über einen Menschen zu gewinnen, würde ich mich wahrscheinlich für Alter, Beruf und Geschlecht entscheiden."

Peter R. Hofstätter

Dienstag, 16. Februar 2016

The Biology of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Symptomatology: Identifying an Extremely K-Selected Life History Variant

The Biology of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Symptomatology: Identifying an Extremely K-Selected Life History Variant
Steven C. Hertler (2016)


Size at birth, growth rate, age at sexual maturity, number and size of offspring, and longevity are among the variables studied in life history evolution, a mid-level branch of evolutionary biology. Long-lived, slow maturing, and highly encephalized Homo sapiens, though skewed as a group towards the very slow end of the spectrum, nevertheless show some life history variation; variation which may relate to, and to some extent explain, personality variation. When applied to extant personality disorders, the risk-taking, boldness, and impulsivity of psychopathy is explained as a fast life history strategy. Herein, it is argued that the highly heritable obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), opposite psychopathy, is a slow life history strategy. Both OCPD and slow life history strategists exhibit anxiety and harm avoidance, risk and loss aversion, future-oriented thought and time urgency, delayed gratification, and conscientious labor and fidelity. In addition to a host of compelling correlations, the preponderance of intrinsic over extrinsic mortality that explains the evolution of slow life histories is precisely that which has been described in an ecological etiology that explains OCPD as a product of post-migration evolution from Africa into Eurasia.

Mittwoch, 10. Februar 2016

Die Ordnungsvermutung:

Der Mensch wird mit einer Ordnungsvermutung geboren. Doch unterscheiden sich unterschiedliche Menschen darin, wieviel Ordnung sie in der Welt vermuten. Nicht jedermann erlebt die Welt als Kosmos.

[Siehe auch: Chinese Science]

[z.B. Kants Auffassung der Welt: "Alles in der Natur, sowohl in der leblosen als auch in der belebten Welt, geschieht nach Regeln, ob wir gleich diese Regeln nicht immer kennen. - Das Wasser fällt nach Gesetzen der Schwere, und bei den Thieren geschieht die Bewegung des Gehens auch nach Regeln. Der Fisch im Wasser, der Vogel in der Luft bewegt sich nach Regeln. Die ganze Natur überhaupt ist eigentlich nichts anders als ein Zusammenhang von Erscheinungen nach Regeln; und es giebt überall keine Regellosigkeit. Wenn wir eine solche zu finden meinen, so können wir in diesem Falle nur sagen: daß uns die Regeln unbekannt sind."]

Dienstag, 9. Februar 2016

Scientific literacy, optimism about science and conservatism

Scientific literacy, optimism about science and conservatism
Noah Carl, Nathan Cofnas, Michael A. Woodley of Menie (2016)


Some have asserted that conservatives are less well disposed toward science.
It has been claimed that they are inflexible, dogmatic and intolerant.
Different sub-dimensions of political orientation can be separated.
We distinguish between three definitions of ‘conservative’.
Economic conservatives are as or more literate and optimistic about science.


It is frequently asserted that conservatives exhibit a cognitive style that renders them less well disposed toward science than progressives, and that they are correspondingly less trusting of scientific institutions and less knowledgeable about scientific ideas. Here we scrutinize these assertions, using data from the U.S. General Social Survey. We distinguish between three different definitions of ‘conservative’: first, identifying as conservative, rather than as liberal; second, holding socially conservative views, rather than socially progressive views; and third, holding economically conservative views, rather than economically leftist views. We find that self-identified conservatives and social conservatives are less scientifically literate and optimistic about science than, respectively, self-identified liberals and social progressives. However, we find that economic conservatives are as or more scientifically literate and optimistic about science than economic leftists. Our results highlight the importance of separating different sub-dimensions of political orientation when studying the relationships between political beliefs, scientific literacy and optimism about science.

Donnerstag, 4. Februar 2016

Darwin about Mathematics:

>During the three years which I spent at Cambridge my time was wasted, as far as the academical studies were concerned, as completely as at Edinburgh and at school. I attempted mathematics, and even went during the summer of 1828 with a private tutor (a very dull man) to Barmouth, but I got on very slowly. The work was repugnant to me, chiefly from my not being able to see any meaning in the early steps in algebra. This impatience was very foolish, and in after years I have deeply regretted that I did not proceed far enough at least to understand something of the great leading principles of mathematics, for men thus endowed seem to have an extra sense. But I do not believe that I should ever have succeeded beyond a very low grade.<

Dienstag, 2. Februar 2016

Aspekte des Urteilens:

(A) die Geschwindigkeit im Urteilen
(B) Urteilssicherheit

[Denkgeschwindigkeit versus Fehleranfälligkeit des Denkens; Die wissenschaftliche Methode an sich ist kritisch. Es geht in der Wissenschaft nicht primär darum, schnell Gedankengebäude zu errichten. Ein wichtigeres Ziel ist es, zu sicheren Aussagen über einen Gegenstand zu gelangen. Nur sichere Fundamente sind tragfähig.]

Boredom and Creativity:

>Sammy Davis Jr once said that he thought boredom was a great help to creativity, because when you start getting bored without constant external stimulation, that's when stuff starts coming up from the inside, which is really what creativity is about.<