Adrian Furnham, Sophie von Stumm, Mark Fenton-O’Creevy (2014)
This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed ‘‘money pathology’’ (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four ‘‘money types’’, based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707–711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more ‘‘money pathology’’ than males. The biggest difference on the money types was on money being associated with generosity (money representing love) where men scored much lower than females, and autonomy (money representing freedom) where men scored higher than women. For men, more than women, money represented Power and Security. Men were more likely to be Hoarders while women did more emotional regulatory purchasing. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.