Elizabeth C. Arch (1993)
No current explanation about the bases for human action adequately accounts for the persistence of differences between the public achievement of women and men. An argument is presented here that underlying many of these differences are variations in the responses of males and females to situations perceived as risky. It is postulated that in such situations males are more likely to see a challenge that calls forth participation while females tend to respond as to a threat in ways that encourage avoidance of the risk. Application of this idea provides coherence to many disparate and sometimes anomalous findings and suggests lines of investigation that may prove to be fruitful.