Freitag, 25. April 2014

The Relationship between Learning and Intelligence

>In reviewing the then entire literature on the relation of learning to IQ I (Jensen 1979) arrived at a number of empirical generalizations regarding the conditions that seem most clearly related to the magnitude of the learning-IQ correlations, or the degree to which various learning tasks are g loaded. To summarize: Learning is more highly g loaded when:

1. learning is intentional and calls forth conscious mental effort;

2. the learning or practice trials are paced in such a way as to allow the subject time to think;

3. the material to be learned is hierarchical in the sense that the learning of later elements depends on mastery of earlier elements;

4. the material to be learned is meaningful in the sense of being related to other knowledge or experience already possessed by the learner;

5. the learning task permits transfer-from somewhat different but related past learning;

6. the learning is insightful, that is, it involves “catching on” or “getting the idea”;

7. the material to be learned is of moderate difficulty and complexity, in the sense of the number of elements that must be integrated simultaneously for the learning to progress;

8. the amount of time for learning a given amount of material to a specified criterion of mastery is fixed for all students;

9. the learning material is positively age-related, that is, some kinds of material are more readily learned (hence the concept of “readiness”) by older than by younger children; and

10. performance gains are measured at an early stage of learning something “new” than at a late stage of practice on the same task.<

The Relationship between Learning and Intelligence
Arthur R. Jensen (1989)
Learning and Individual Differences

[See also:]

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