David Lubinski, 2010
Journal of Counseling Psychology
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Figure 1. Average z scores of participants on verbal, spatial, and mathematical ability for terminal bachelor’s degrees, terminal master’s degrees, and doctoral degrees are plotted by field. The groups are plotted in rank order of their normative standing on g (verbal [V] + spatial [S] + mathematical [M]) along the x-axis, and the line with the arrows from each field pointing to it indicates on the continuous scale where they are in general mental ability in z-score units. This figure is standardized in relation to all participants with complete ability data at the time of initial testing. Respective Ns for each group (men + women) were as follows for bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorates, respectively: engineering (1,143, 339, 71), physical science (633, 182, 202), math/computer science (877, 266, 57), biological science (740, 182, 79), humanities (3,226, 695, 82), social science (2,609, 484, 158), arts (615, 171 [master’s only]), business (2,386, 191 [master’s + doctorate]), and education (3,403, 1,505 [master’s + doctorate]). * For education and business, master’s degrees and doctorates were combined because the doctorate samples for these groups were too small to obtain stability (N < 30). For the specific N for each degree by sex that composed the major groupings see Appendix A in Wai et al. (2009).