Freitag, 8. August 2014

Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood

Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood
Timothy A. Salthouse (2014)
Intelligence


Highlights

Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons reveal declines in vocabulary knowledge.
Relations among different types of vocabulary tests are weaker at older ages.
Decreases in vocabulary performance may be related to structural changes in knowledge.


Abstract

Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60s. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked.













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