Mittwoch, 25. September 2013

Experts are born, then made:

Experts are born, then made: Combining prospective and retrospective longitudinal data shows that cognitive ability matters
Jonathan Wai; Available online 23 September 2013

Is cognitive ability important in acquiring educational and occupational expertise?
Study 1 examined prospective longitudinal data from two independent sources.
Study 2 examined retrospective longitudinal data from five independent sources.
Findings were replicated across multiple datasets.
Combining these sources of data showed that cognitive ability matters.


Does cognitive ability matter in the development of expertise in educational and occupational domains? Study 1 reviewed prospective longitudinal data from the top 1% in ability within two cohorts of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY; Total N = 1975) and examined four cohorts of a stratified random sample of America's population (Project Talent; Total N = 1536) to see whether ability differences at a younger age made a difference in the attainment of a higher percentage of educational degrees and specifically doctorates (e.g., JDs, MDs, or PhDs) at a later age. Compared to the general population, the top 1% in ability earned a much higher percentage of educational degrees at each level. And even within the top 1% of ability, ability differences made a difference in obtaining a doctorate degree. Study 2 reviewed retrospective longitudinal data from five groups of America's elite (Total N = 2254)—Fortune 500 CEOs, federal judges, billionaires, Senators, and members of the House of Representatives—to determine what percentage of each group was in the top 1% of general ability at a younger age. A large percentage of individuals within each of these areas of occupational expertise were found to be in the top 1% of ability. By combining multiple samples of both prospective and retrospective longitudinal data, cognitive ability was found to matter in the acquisition of educational and occupational expertise.

Keine Kommentare:

Kommentar veröffentlichen